Fourteenth Amendment Summary

Plessy attempted to sit in an all-white railroad car. After refusing to sit in the black railway carriage car, Plessy was arrested for violating an 1890 Louisiana statute that provided for segregated “separate but equal” railroad accommodations. Those using facilities not designated for their race were criminally liable under the statute. At trial with Justice John H. Ferguson presiding, Plessy was found guilty on the grounds that the law was a reasonable exercise of the state’s police powers based upon custom, usage, and tradition in the state.

Plessy filed a petition for writs of prohibition and certiorari in the Supreme Court of Louisiana against Ferguson, asserting that segregation stigmatized blacks and stamped them with a badge of inferiority in violation of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth amendments. The court found for Ferguson and the Supreme Court granted cert. Kid perception of parents’ favoritism counts more than reality Earlier studies have found that many if not most parents do have a favorite child. And though parents usually strive to hide that, it is not always successful.

That differential treatment has been linked to problems with family relationships and risky behavior in teens. In families that weren’t particularly close, the child who felt less favored was more likely to be a substance abuser. The more dramatic the difference they perceived in preferential treatment, the more likely they were to be using. Parents can try to minimize any ill effects of perceived favoritism by letting the kids know that you really do love them, Jenny (the youngest of six and mother’s favorite) says, annoying teenage attitude and all. As the Texas oil industry grew, so did related industries.

Some companies began producing oil by-products such as petrochemicals. Others produced pipelines, barrels, and oil-field equipment. As these companies began moving into oil towns such as Houston, Beaumont, and Port Arthur, they further expanded the local economies. Some moved into small towns, quickly turning them into cities. Despite the growth in oil and other industries during the 1920s, agriculture remained the leading economic force in Texas. World War I and the expansion of cities increased the demand for farm products.

By the end of the 1920s, the value of agricultural products was three times that of oil. Unfortunately for farmers, major increases in crop production led to a sharp decline in prices. Many farmers refused to slow down production. In fact, farmers produced even more to keep their income at the same level. This made prices drop further. Some farmers formed farmers’ organizations to pool their crops and negotiate better prices. The supply and demand of the good or service affects the revenue attainable from the market. When petroleum companies increase the cost of fuel because of limited supply, it affects businesses globally and locally.