Evolution of Theoretical Knowledge of nursing

The ultimate goal of the nurse is to maintain, and restore the health of the patient. Nursing is considered both a “science” and an “art”. The application of nursing knowledge and the technical aspects of the practice is considered the “science”. The establishment of a caring relationship through the application of nursing knowledge and judgment is used in a compassionate manner and is seen as an “art”. (College of Nurses 1999 June Nursing and You Volume1, number 3 p3)

This paper will attempt to explain the four concepts of the nursing metapardigm as it relates to the person environment, health and nursing. A person is seen as an individual possessing their own uniqueness, personalities and having their individual needs. A person should be treated with respect and dignity regardless of their cultural, religious, socio-economic class, marital status or sexual preferences. The individual should not encounter any bias or discrimination in school, employment or when the need arises for medical care.

Each person has their basic needs that must be met while progressing through the different stages of development. One should be given choices, and be allowed to have an input in their care or treatment plan. They should be allowed to excel and strive to achieve their goals. Be able to reside and work in their chosen location and field as long as they are qualified for the job. They are usually part of a family belonging to a cultural group, living within a community or region of their choice. The environment can be open or closed.

It can contribute to the building or endangering of the persons self esteem. One might adapt to the environment depending on one’s personal preference. A person might be seen in the eyes of others as the product of their environment that might be interpreted as a negative or a positive statement. Depending on one’s interpretation of the statement. Some environments have sub-cultures within the environment. Each group has different beliefs, such as religion, diet, attire, and dialects. The environment sometimes contributes to some medical problems, for example respiratory problems.

Nurses unfamiliar with the laws and customs of the environment might need to familiarize themselves with cultural practices. What is appropriate and inappropriate for that culture for example male nurses not allowed to give care to female patients in that environment and vice versa. Nurses might need to observe the environment for safety precautions and life threatening situations. Which will contribute or cause an illness, or preventing recovery. The environment is considered home and that is were the person resides.

It is a familiar surrounding for the individual. Health can be defined as freedom from either a mental or physical condition, which impedes one from performing activities of daily living or preventing the person from functioning at their optimum level, for that individual. The person is considered mentally or physically stable or unstable depending on the diagnosis he/she is assigned. Health is when a person is in a state of well-being. The individual has been free of pain and disease. The patient is always the focus; therefore it is called “patient focused care”.

Health is considered the quality of life, when an individual is independent and able to function without any obstacles of impedement. Nursing can be defined as one being trained in both theory and practice. Virgina Henderson also stated that “nursing is an independent unique health profession carrying out activities with or on behalf of the patient that contributes to health or recovery (or to a peaceful death) that the patient would perform unaided given the necessary strength, will or knowledge”. (Nursing Foundation (1999) Basic Elements of Selected Conceptual Models p 314).

In nursing the nurse should be able to critical think, be caring, competent, compassionate and have a conscience according to Roach. (Roach 1992). Nursing would include, doing a nursing assessment, nursing diagnosis, nursing care plan, and a nursing interventions. Starting with short-term goals, and upon achieving short-term goals for the patient, then proceed to long-term goals. Goals should be realistic. Then evaluate and reassess if the needs arises. Problem solving and treating the patients as human, the same way you would like to be treated.

Working in a mental Health hospital, the client is seen as a whole person, a human being. A person who is unable to cope, survive or function at their optimum level in the community, due to mental illness. Patients diagnosed with a mental illness, and are being cared for in the hospital. Their mental status is monitored, and they are assessed on an ongoing basis. Patients are encouraged by nursing staff to verbalize their concerns, so staff can be aware of their needs, which will promote stabilization of the patient, diagnosed with a mental disorder.

The environment in which the patient resides should be non-threatening therapeutic and be conducive to healing. The environment might be seen as open or closed depending on one’s perception. Health is interpreted differently, depending on the cultural, religious background of the person and their knowledge base, regarding health. With mental illness, the patient’s medication might need to be adjusted. Which will modify the behaviour and stabilized the patient at the same time.

Assisting the patient to function at their optimum level, giving choices and promoting independence. My thinking represents a combination of worldviews. I looked at the whole person; reflect on the things that I could have done better. I attempt to understand the behaviors and practices of certain cultures. Gaining an understanding of the culture by using the deductionist path of science along with historical views of the person within the environment. As environment shape behaviors at times, I look at a combination of worldviews to determine each metapardigm.