Environment. Cruise ship pollution

Environmental degradation is one of the biggest threats.Environmental Change and Human Health, a special section of World Resources 1998-99 in this report describes how preventable illnesses and premature deaths are still occurring in very large numbers. If vast improvements are made in human health, millions of people will be living longer, healthier lives than ever before. In these poorest regions of the world an estimated one in five children will not live to see their fifth birthday, primarily because of environment-related diseases. Eleven million children die worldwide annually, equal to the combined populations of Norway and Switzerland, and mostly due to malaria, acute respiratory infections or diarrhoea — illnesses that are largely preventable.

When the environment becomes less valuable or damaged, environmental degradation is said to occur. There are many forms of environmental degradation. When habitats are destroyed, biodiversity is lost, or natural resources are depleted, the environment is hurt.

Environmental degradation can occur naturally, or through human processes. The largest areas of concern at present are the loss of rain forests, air pollution and smog, ozone depletion, and the destruction of the marine environment. Pollution is occurring all over the world and poisoning the planet's oceans. Even in remote areas, the effects of marine degradation are obvious.

In some areas, the natural environment has been exposed to hazardous waste. In other places, major disasters such as oil spills have ruined the local environment. CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons, are the primary cause of ozone depletion. When industrial processes release these chemicals, they rise into the stratosphere and degrade the ozone.

Acid rain, smog and poor air quality have been the result of air pollution. Both industrial operations and automobiles have released gigantic amounts of emissions that have intensified these problems. Deforestation and the logging industry have destroyed many tropical rain forests around the world. This has destroyed many natural habitats, and the plants and animals native to the areas. Environmentalists are working hard to combat environmental degradation. There are countless organizations located all over the world that are dedicated to preventing the global destruction of the environment

Industrial pollution & environmental degradation

types of pollutants,ill-effects of pollutants and also some other subtopics related to the title . it is an important project to me. .Beside,industrial pollution,there is also noice pollution too,which is a main cause for effecting the entire enviroment.You see,generally,on roads,or crossings and turns,alsmot every second vihicle is either throwing bad smelled black smoke or hitting your ears with a un-bearable bang or sound.Also,the drivers is running one's vehile at high speed and using musical horns with high pressure.

He or she knowes well that using such kind or horns are banned by traffic control authorities,while passing nearby hospitals or nursing home.But who bothers and thinks seriously about those patients(Heart-patients and others) who are counting their last days in this nasty world.So,make and prepare such a project which could alert and remember the general public to "Save the natue to the Mankind"

the most important pollution is the pollution with particles. from industry and cars causing all sorts of breath sicknesses.light pollution and water pollution are the next. light pollution disturbs your bio rhythm and water causes water related diseases

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation -types of pollutants -ill-effects of different pollutants -consequences of pollution study of any local river,factory or land fill.

Environmental Pollution

Petroleum-derived contaminants constitute one of the most prevalent sources of environmental degradation in the industrialized world. In large concentrations, the hydrocarbon molecules that make up crude oil and petroleum products are highly toxic to many organisms, including humans. Petroleum also contains trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are dangerous by themselves and can react with the environment to produce secondary poisonous chemicals. The dominance of petroleum products in the United States and the world economy creates the conditions for distributing large amounts of these toxins into populated areas and ecosystems around the globe. [pic]

Smoke is pouring from a refinery burnoff vent. (© Royalty-Free/Corbis. Reproduced by permission.)

Oil Spills

Perhaps the most visible source of petroleum pollution are the catastrophic oil-tanker spills—like the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska—that make news headlines and provide disheartening pictures of oilcoated shorelines and dead or oiled birds and sea animals. These spills occur during the transportation of crude oil from exporting to importing nations. Crude oil travels for long distances by either ocean tanker or land pipeline, and both methods are prone to accidents.

Oil may also spill at the site where it is extracted, as in the case of a blowout like the Ixtoc I exploratory well in 1979 (see table "Ten Largest Oil Spills in History"). A blowout is one of the major risks of drilling for oil. It occurs when gas trapped inside the deposit is at such a high pressure that oil suddenly erupts out of the drill shaft in a geyser. Accidents with tankers, pipelines, and oil wells release massive quantities of petroleum into land and marine ecosystems in a concentrated form. The ecological impacts of large spills like these have only been studied for a very [pic]

World Oil Price 1970-2000 ( World Oil Market and Price Chronologies DOE Energy Information Administration; originally published by the Department of Energy's Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Analysis Division) few cases, and it is not possible to say which have been the most environmentally damaging accidents in history. A large oil spill in the open ocean may do less harm to marine organisms than a small spill near the shore. The Exxon Valdez disaster created a huge ecological disaster not because of the volume of oil spilled (eleven million gallons) but because of the amount of shoreline affected, the sensitivity and abundance of organisms in the area, and the physical characteristics of the Prince William Sound, which helped to amplify the damage.

The Exxon Valdez spill sparked the most comprehensive and costly cleanup effort ever attempted, and called more public attention to oil accidents than ever before. Scientific studies of the effects of oil in Prince William Sound are ongoing, and the number of tanker accidents worldwide has decreased significantly since the time of the Valdez spill, due to stricter regulations and such required improvements in vessel design as double-hull construction.

Pollution Prevention (P2) It doesn’t take a leap of faith to understand that the best way to reduce toxic emissions is to not make them in the first place. That’s the simple idea behind pollution prevention: the "best" pollution is the one you never create. Putting that into practice has led companies to re-examine their products and processes with an eye to reducing or eliminating toxic ingredients, recycling or reusing chemicals to keep them out of the waste stream, and using a wide range of alternative materials to replace polluting ones. Top of Form

Sustainable development means achieving a quality of life that can be maintained for many generations. .Since the mid 1970s, sustainable development has emerged as the preferred way of dealing with the rapid degradation of the natural environment. The first global meeting focused mainly on the environmental issues, such as pollution and waste, improvement. Although the need to combine development and environment goals was becoming evident, more emphasis was placed on the “limits to growth” arising from shortages in resources such as metals and fossil fuels. Each year industrially developed countries generate billions of tons of pollutants.

The most prevalent and widely dispersed air pollutants are described in the accompanying table. The level is usually given in terms of atmospheric concentrations (micrograms of pollutants per cubic metre of air) or, for gases, in terms of parts per million, that is, millilitres of gas per thousand litres of air. Many come from directly identifiable sources; sulphur dioxide, for example, comes from electric power plants burning coal or oil. Others are formed through the action of sunlight on previously emitted reactive materials (called precursors).

For example, ozone, a dangerous pollutant in smog, is produced by the interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight. Ozone also causes serious crop damage. On the other hand, the discovery in the 1980s that air pollutants such as fluorocarbons are causing a loss of ozone from the Earth's protective ozone layer has caused the phasing out of these materials. A further category of air pollution is heavy metals, present as particulates and arising from many industrial processes.

Atmospheric Pollution from Vehicle Exhaust Vehicle exhaust adversely affects the health of animals and plants and the chemical nature of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, two of the major components of vehicle exhaust produced in the combustion of petroleum-based fuels, contribute significantly to global warming. Elevated carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon levels cause sunlight to be reflected and trapped within the atmosphere, slowly raising the atmospheric temperature.Harold Taylor/Oxford Scientific Films

Rivers have long been used, and abused, for the disposal of human agricultural and industrial waste (effluent). Through their natural flow and ecology rivers have the capacity to cleanse themselves and they can cope with surprisingly large amounts of effluent. However, any river has a finite capacity to digest sewage and absorb fertilizers washing from crop lands. If this capacity is exceeded, over-abundant bacteria, algae, and plant life consume all the oxygen dissolved in the water (eutrophication), suffocating insect and fish life, and leading to the destruction of the entire riparian ecosystem through disruption of the food chain.

Water pollution by chemicals not normally present in the natural system can also have dire consequences, and rivers are extremely vulnerable to poisoning by toxic substances such as heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium), acids, solvents, and PCBs, or chlorinated organic compounds (see Environment: Chlorinated Hydrocarbons), produced by mining, smelting, and manufacturing industries. Not only do these chemicals kill during acute pollution incidents, they also accumulate slowly in the sediments and soils of the flood plain.

When they are concentrated in riparian plants growing on contaminated land, and the wildlife that feeds on those plants, mutation and infertility may lead to irreversible destruction of entire natural communities and permanent blighting of the landscape. Humans are not exempt from the dangers of pollution, and consumption of water and food from contaminated rivers and soils poses real, but largely unknown, hazards to public health.

Most rivers in the industrialized nations of the world are already polluted to a greater or lesser degree, and the challenge facing today and tomorrow’s society is not only to reduce current pollution inputs, but also to restore the natural ecology of rivers and make them safe for people to use by cleaning up toxic chemicals already residing in contaminated sediments and flood-plain soils.

The challenge in the developing world is to avoid repeating the mistakes made by the industrialized nations through preventing pollution of rivers and their ecosystems. These rivers are the last refuge of many plant and animal species and the water resources that they can supply represent the best hope for sustainable development in many nations.

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mining always involves the physical removal of materials from the crust of the Earth, frequently in huge amounts for the recovery of only small amounts of the desired product. It is therefore not possible to mine without affecting the environment, at least within the mining area. In fact, mining is considered to be one of the most important causes of environmental degradation caused by human beings. However, the modern qualified mining engineer is skilled in causing the minimum possible amount of damage and in restoring the site when mining has been completed. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mine Machinery A mammoth earth-mover prepares to hoist ore in an Australian iron mine. The machine uses tank-like tracks to traverse the floor of the mine, and its shovel is capable of lifting heavy loads of rock into trucks for transport.Hutchison LibraryMicrosoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Smoke Billowing from Industrial Smokestacks Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and other types of contaminants pouring from industrial smokestacks contribute to worldwide atmospheric pollution. Carbon dioxide contributes significantly to global warming, while sulphur dioxide is the principal cause of acid rain in eastern and northern Europe