Employment Law| Description and Requirement of Law| Court Case Influential to Establishment of Law| Importance of Law| Workplace Application| Civil Rights Act of 1964| Prohibits discrimination of hiring, compensation, conditions, and privileges of employment based on race, religion, color, sex, or nationality | Katzenbach v. McClung and Heart of Atlanta v. United States| The importance of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ensures that every person is allowed the same chance of getting hired based on their job qualifications regardless of, sex race, color, religion, or national origin. | Under the law employers are required to post signs with the Title VII description in employee break-rooms.
| Equal Employment Opportunity Act| Employers are not allowed to discriminate against employees on the basis of age, race, sex, creed, religion, color, or national origin. | McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green | The importance of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act is to ensure that the Civil Rights Act requirements are being followed and gives power to the Employment Commission.| Companies ensure that they are meeting requirements by hiring people regardless of their national origin or race| Equal Pay Act| Requires that men and women working in the same place be given equal amount of pay for equal work. | Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Co. 1970|
The Equal Pay act is important because it ensures everyone is paid the same wage for identical jobs regardless of their sex.| In the workplace today employees are getting paid based on their knowledge and experience. | Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967| Protects employees ages 40 to 65 from discrimination. | Gomez v. Potter | The importance of the ADEA is that it protects the older employees from discrimination.| Wal-Mart for example hires older people specifically for the use as door greeters.| Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990| Prohibits discrimination against an essentially qualified individual, and requires companies to accommodate individuals reasonably.
| Tennessee v. Lane in 2004|The importance of this act is that it requires companies to make reasonable accommodations for disabled employees so they will be able to perform their job.| Companies accommodate employees with disabilities by using TTD, speaking technology, and elevator.| Civil Rights Act of 1991| The updated version of this act nullified select supreme Court decisions and reinstates burden of proof by employer and allows for punitive and compensatory damages through jury trials.| Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio| | | Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993|Permits employees in organizations of 50 or more workers to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for circumstances outlined in the act.|
It was put in place to help working families balance work and family life.| The importance of this act is that it makes it easier to balance family, work and other obligations without fearing losing their jobs.| If you have a child, adopt a child, or if you yourself become sick or have a sick parent, child, or spouse you may be eligible to take unpaid time off to be with them without the fear of losing your job.|
Privacy Act of 1974| The Privacy Act of 1974 protects certain federal government records pertaining to individuals. In particular, the Act covers systems of records that an agency maintains and retrieves by an individual’s name or other personal identifier| Was passed as a precautionary measure by the Senate and House of Representative | Individuals have the right to look at their employee file to make sure that information is accurate.| An example of this would be that companies are required to send out privacy notices to their customers. |
Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988| This act requires some federal contractors and all federal grantees agree that they will provide drug free workplaces as a precondition of receiving a contract or grant from the federal government| Enacted by Congress as part of an anti-drug legislation in 1988| The importance of this act is that it ensures the safety of all employees by ensuring that no one will be working while under the influence of drugs.| Drug testing as part of an application process and if an employee is hurt on the job most companies require a drug test when they go to the hospital. |
Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 | Prohibits employers to use polygraph tests in a job application process.| On June 27, 1988, Congress enacted the Employee Polygraph Protection Act 1 to regulate the use of lie detector devices in the workplace| The importance of this act is that it protects employees from violating privacy issues by asking non job related | It is unreasonable for employers to give potential employees polygraph test| Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) of 1988| Makes sure that employers give notification to employees about plant closings or lay-offs.|
This became law without President Ronald Reagan’s signature through the use of veto-proof Democratic majority in Congress.| The importance of this law is to protect employees because of a shut down or layoff. The law requires that the employee be given a 60 day notice.| To ease the burden of losing their jobs, some companies give severance packages based on the employees years of service with the company|