Abstract: Green ICT is an important topic nowadays as more and more attention put on the environmental protection and energy conservation. In this project our main goal will be to find out the strategies and approaches through` which` we can achieve higher energy efficiency for both network and mobile devices. And the use of wireless communication technologies in the other fields is improving energy efficiency and environmental protection especially in smart grid and crises management. By studying the solution from other sources we will propose a new solution for higher energy efficiency.
Introduction: The global information and communication technologies (ICT) industries contribute 2% of global carbon dioxide emissions approximately which is equivalent to aviation industry. The cellular industry is the main contributor in the energy emission of ICT.The tremendous growth in the voice and data communication traffic and energy cost is needed to be addressed for more energy efficient green communication. This emerging trend provoked the interest of researchers in new research area called green communication. The core vision of green communication in ICT is to reduce power consumption of carbon footprint, and increased the energy efficiency of network while maintaining the quality of service (QoS).
ICT usage has grown in the recent years. More than half of the population is using television and up to half of population of world uses computers at home with half of them using Internet. ICT has grown up by the mobile technology at an exponential rate worldwide. Mobile broadband subscription overcomes the fixed broadband subscription in 2009. With the introduction of iPhone and android and social networking application such as facebook and twitter the demand of cellular data has been grown up these days.
On other hand it consumes more energy which is a scarce resource and generates carbon emission which pollutes the environment. Moreover, there are currently more than 4 million Base Stations (BSs) serving mobile users . Energy consumption of a typical macro BS is 25 MW per annum and generates carbon footprint of 11 Tons of CO2. A BS connected to electrical grid (on-grid) costs approximately 3000 $ per annum to operate, while an off-grid BS located in remote areas runs on diesel power generators and costs about ten times more. Each generator consumes diesel of 1500 Liters per month, resulting in costs of approximately 30,000 $ per annum. It also generates CO2 emissions.
In brief, energy efficiency is the growing concern for ICT industry and cellular network operators. This observation indeed triggers our motivation for this project which focuses on energy efficiency in mobile communications.
More specifically, we intend to answer the following questions. How more energy efficient network can be achieved from both system and mobile station points of view? How the overall environmental effect of cellular industry can be reduced while maintaining profitability? How can we use wireless communication technologies to improve energy efficiency? In this report, a brief survey is provided on part of the work that has already been done to achieve more energy efficient network and few techniques are suggested to enable energy efficient network.
Since the development of ICT, the increasing number of customers realized that energy efficiency is an important part of ICT. As the residential, home office and commercial building sector together is responsible for over 50% of Europe’s electricity consumption, the Smart home and Smart Grid clouds improve the energy efficiency significantly and save lots of electricity.
The common infrastructure to be used in the Smart Home, Smart Grid is abstractly shown in Figure 1 . An important question is the integration of devices, data transfer between devices, and integration and data transfer with the enterprise system. Information generated at the device level is used by other devices. As the information transfer and exploitation has to be done in an interoperable way, Internet-based technologies are considered to be the best candidate to glue the modules of the system together. Furthermore, several other technologies can be used beyond the data transfer technologies in order to provide further system services.
The information representation and communication standards relevant and necessary to the integration of Smart home and Smart Grids are investigated. Within the interaction of Smart home/Grid, there are three main categories of technologies. These are briefly summarized in the following subsections:
I. In-house technologies: for monitoring, control and management of devices in the Smart home. II. House-to-grid technologies: to interconnect houses and to connect houses to grid. III. House/grid-to-enterprise technologies: mainly used to couple the information generated within Smart home and Smart Grid.
figure 1:- overview of smart home and smart grid ICT infrastructure
During the last decade, there has been tremendous growth in ICT industry. ICT industry consists of Internet users, mobile cellular telephones, fixed telephone lines, mobile broadband subscriptions, and fixed broadband subscribers etc. The numbers of subscribers and the demand for cellular traffic have increased astronomically. With the introduction of smart phones such as Android and iPhone devices, and the success of social networking applications such as Facebook and Twitter, the demand for cellular data traffic has also grown in recent years. However, on the other hand it consumes more energy which is a scarce resource and generates carbon emissions which pollute environment.
ICT, used as an extended synonym from IT is a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of computing. As information dissemination and exploitation have to be done in an open and interoperable way, Internet-based technologies are considered to be the best choice for data transfer.
Furthermore, Cognitive Radio (CR) and cooperative relaying technologies are two techniques that can be used to achieve greenness in cellular networks. CR is an intelligent technique which utilizes radio spectrum in a more efficient manner . The principle of CR is to sense the spectral environment over a wide bandwidth and detect the presence/absence of primary users to adapt the parameters of their communication scheme. On the other hand communication through cooperative relays provides improvement in throughput, coverage for wireless networks, and enhances wireless link capacity.
Moreover about mobile devices, there are many technical reports that give detailed power consumption figures in mobile devices. Some reports provide very valuable details that go in depth on component energy usage and aggregated consumption. For other energy saving methods and proposals there are many references available. They range widely from pure theoretical to simulations and prototype implementations.
From the industrial domain, ZigBee has become popular in recent years due to its low power consumption, low cost, and low complexity. Although its data rate is relatively low (20 to 250 Kbps), it is still sufficient in many applications. Thanks to the support for up to 65536 nodes, ZigBee is quite suitable for being implemented in, the areas with high population density.
Green communication in ICT, especially in mobile communications, is the main focus of the project. The project is divided into four different tasks. How greenness can be achieved in current and future ICT infrastructure is the first task. Green communication in current cellular systems using smart grid. Battery life and power consumption is the main problem for mobile devices during crisis management. How can battery life be extended and more energy efficient mobile devices be achieved?, is the third task. How to reduce negative environmental effects by green communications is the final task of the project.
Objectives: To achieve greenness in current and future ICT infrastructure. To improve the battery life and make it more energy efficient for mobile communication. To reduce the negative environmental effects by green communication and at last the effectiveness of smart grid in ICT greenness to find out the strategies and approach that can be used to achieve higher energy efficiency.
Research methodology: The methodology to carry out this research consists of the following stages. In the first stage we will perform the literature review on green ICT. The second stage is data gathering phase in which the effect of ICT on specific city is quantified. And in third stage, we will explore various solutions for greenness in ICT and their effect like smart grid, wireless technology and optimizing component power consumption and on the basis of that study propose optimal solutions and its effect on greenness of ICT is the last stage of the project.
a. Time frame:
|Time |Task | |January – February 2013 |Literature review of green ICT. | |March 2013 |Data gathering phase (effect of ICT on specific city/town). | |April 2013 |Search out different strategies and solution used for greenness in ICT | |May 2013 |Study the effect of smart Grid on greenness in ICT. | |June 2013 |Study the effect of wireless technology on greenness of ICT and there solution. | |July 2013 |Optimizing component power consumption techniques study. | |August 2013 |On the basis of above study propose our strategies and solutions for green ICT |
References  Gerwen, R.J.F., Jaarsma, S. and Koenis, F., Domme meters worden slim? Kosten- batenanalyse slimme meetinfrastructuur, Arnhem, 30 augustus 2005  "Evaluating The Leading-Edge Italian Telegestore Project", presentation by Fabio Borghese, ENEL, Business Dseevelopment Executive, Infrastructure and Networks Di- vision
 Domestic Metering Innovation, Consultation Document, Ofgem (UK), February 1, 2006.  Gerwen, R.J.F., Jaarsma, S. and Koenis, F., Cost Benefit Analysis for Smart Meter- ing, Metering International, issue 4, 2005  Information on smart metering project on Continuon website: http://www.continuon.nl, visited June 8, 2006.  Information on website Oxxio: http://www.oxxio.nl visited June 8, 2006 and brochure C 06-05-02 "Het slimme meetsysteem van Oxxio" on this website.