A state is one of sufficient population at a defined territory having its own independence and freedom from external forces. As the population of the state and as its territory increases by modes allowed by law, a need to organize the same becomes a major problem. Various problems of various groups are to be addressed without prejudice to the rights of others equally situated. In as result, local government units are created.
In relation to the creation of local governments, the issue on policing system and police protection come in. It can be observed that crime prevention for example is placed at the hands of these local governments and the state is more on military concerns.
Effective governance and public management is achieved where there is greater and easier communication between the governed and the governing body, thus, the creation of local government units or political subdivisions. The United States, as the name implies, divided into states, further divided into counties, municipalities and some are further divided into townships (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_United_States, 2008).
Among the issues dealt with by local governments is the issue on security. Crime rates increases particularly relating to prohibited drugs. This does not only concern a specific area of the country but has affected almost every part of the state. By its nature, it has become a concern of the state, the reason why the state has to have protective and preventive if not remedial measures in response to the safety and protection of the citizens and non-citizens alike.
In the implementation of these safety, remedial and protective measure however, local governments are in a better position to enforce compliance and performance of rules and regulations vis a vis their respective constituents. Both national and local officials know that neighborhood level and that of national level are responsible for the enforcement of rules and regulations which among others maintain peace, security and safety among people.
A combination of both forces is more responsive to the needs of the people, the local level (neighborhood level) sees the problems in a local scope and the national level that of the national scope and even in coordination of foreign countries to strengthen the call for crime prevention (McCaleb, No Year).
With the differing needs of every state, municipality or township as the case may be, resources are available at each of the respective level of government which provide better assistance to the offender, not to mention that their support system are likewise available in the same community.
As said somewhere in this paper, the state is more of addressing military concerns, and so the need to address issues and matters relating thereto. Military troupes are concerned with bigger social, military and other issues, more complex than what police authorities perform. Thus they differ in functions as the military concerns itself with issues national or shall we say global in scope whereas police authorities concern themselves with local issues.
Both however are created towards the keeping and maintenance of peace, security and order in the community protecting primarily their respective territories and at the same time, maintaining friendly relations with neighbor local governments.
It should be noted however that despite an effective government and control on, among others, crime prevention and prosecution by local governments, the national or federal government has lost its influence on the citizens. The same remains, however, its exercise of power is more direct and participatory in character where it involves the active leadership of local units (Katz, No Year).
No Author (2008). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_United_States.
McCaleb, G (2008). Solution-shaped Government. http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0499/ijde/mccaleb.htm
Katz, E. (2008). Local Self –government of the Unites States. http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0499/ijde/katz.htm