Attempts to link VAW on the issue of human rights were first established through the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights wherein such asserts that all humans must have equal rights and opportunities regardless of any difference . However it could be noted that the UDHR did not directly addressed the issues of DV and directly perceived it as a Human Rights issue. As such it is the underlying notion that all humans must be treated as equal has become the basic argument against DV and paved the way for the creation of certain laws that directly cater to it.
In relation with this, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) on 1979 and the United Nation’s 1993 Declaration to Eliminate Violence against Women , also has similar goals. Due to the attempts to link VAW and human rights, such paved the way to transnational women’s movements and other mobilizations worldwide. Non government organization (NGO) and state governments have made their own efforts in order to eradicate this sort of oppression against women . The Private Nature of DV
More importantly, the perception of Domestic Violence (DV) against the framework of human rights paved the way for the idea of applying international laws in order to solve DV all over the world. DV has been perceived as having a private nature due to the reason that its occurrence primarily stemmed out of the family wherein more often are opted to be kept in silence and addressed and/or resolved personally by family members . Most of the time, victims of DV within families opt to keep the issue within the jurisdiction of their own homes.
Women opt to discuss the issue among their husbands or partners rather than reporting such incidences to the police. In relation with this, it could also be significantly noted that once such incidences are reported to the police, the latter’s way of resolving the issue also result to having both parties reconcile within themselves. In effect of this, women who know such a process opted to no longer result to lawful actions, rather only try their best to work it among their partners.
The private nature of DV is due to the fact that it is often committed by men that are close in their lives . In effect of this, it has always been the case that it becomes invisible. It is less likely for the violence to be reported, unlike those type of violence that happened in public and was done by people who are unknown to women. In addition with this, since there are no witnesses to private violence, it becomes very hard for the law to take proper action.
It could be significantly argued as well that the attitude of the police in terms of attending on the crimes of DV has been very distant. Most of them don’t want to take sides among couples even if it is evident that one of them is at fault. As such it is said: "You just try to calm them down. To a policy of arrest rather than meditation, the official approach is not necessarily reflected in practice in part because intervening police officers are at a very high rik in incidences of private violence. " It has been very hard for people to identify violence that happened between couples.
Albeit, the reality is that there is a huge number of violence that happens in intimate relationships rather than those that happened in public. It is more dangerous fro women and the injuries that they have are more severe. In relation with this, it could be significantly noted that the study of Pourezza et al also reveals that women in Iran seem to be more aware of the reasons of violence rather than the evidence of violence. Such according to Pourezza et al is primarily due to the private nature of DV in Iran and the failure of the victims and her family to report such incidents to the police.
Physical violence is perceived to be a private phenomenon and is expected to be resolved within the realm of the family. The risk factors that are associated with DV in Iran are: poverty, addiction, discrimination in work place and social life and lack of personal securities . In the United States however DV although initially perceived to be of a private nature has been attempted to be made on the mainstream of the human rights paradigm in order for it to be properly addressed.
Annual conventions and campaigns are launched by the United Nations such as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, The Sixteen Days of Activism of Center for Women’s Global Leadership’s (CWGL) and Amnesty International’s Stop Violence Against Women Campaign Banner all work together not only to help eliminate domestic violence but other gender-related violence as well. These campaigns together with various laws will able to make women aware of their rights not only as an individual but also as a woman.