As the world changes, people change, new technology advances, and so does crime. Criminals look for new ways to commit crime and the “loop holes” in the laws. The justice system needs to stay on top of these new technologies to protect the people. With the advancement of technology, law officials have to follow the rules of law. Law Enforcement must keep these “liberties” in mind when fighting cybercrime. The Bill of Rights guarantees “civil liberties” to Americans. These include the freedom of speech, right to assemble and freedom of religion, the 1st Amendment right.
The 5th Amendment protects Americans from self-incrimination, due process, double jeopardy on capital crimes, right to a fair trial and the limitation of seizure of property (Cornell University of Law, n.d.), these liberties the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments of the US Constitution. The 14th Amendment forbids states from denying a person “life, liberty or property, without due process of law” and “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (Library of Congress, n.d.). Law Enforcement has to keep these “liberties” in mind when fighting cybercrime. Cybercrime can be defined as “crime that involves the use of computers or the mini population of digital data as well as any violation of a federal or state cybercrime statute” (Schmalleger, 2012, P 309)
The Internet has become a powerful source for information as well as communication. We depend on computers in almost every aspect of our lives. At work, much of our financials are done through the computer. We do not see the millions of dollars a company has but see the numbers generated by the Ledger. We can move money around to various banks and accounts
Criminology in the Future without money in hand. At home, we use computers to our banking, pay bills even shopping. This creates easy access to our account numbers and our identities. With the advancement of technology, white collar crime has increased. Schmalleger (2012) defines white crime as “any violation of the criminal law committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.”
(p. 305) People of respectability are usually in “positions of authority” and hold the trust of their peers and clients. There are many forms of white collar crime. For example: bank fraud, embezzlement, insurance fraud, tax evasion, wire fraud, insider trading, and economic espionage. All of these crimes are a form of ethics violations. Merriam Webster defines ethic as “the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation”, “a set of moral principles: a theory or system of moral values.”
Many professions today have a Professional Code of Conduct. The American Bar Association has “Model Rules of Professional Conduct.” JP Morgan Chase and Company’s Code of Ethics states it goal is to “promote honest and ethical conduct and compliance with the law.” (JP Morgan Chase and Company 2013) According to Schmalleger (2012) occupational crimes are “any act punishable by law that is committed through opportunity created in the course of an occupation which is legal” (p. 309). The use of computers has led to many white collar crimes and ethical violations.
The corporate executive who filters money into off shore accounts for his own personal use has made an ethical violation. A tax preparer, which files false tax returns, is in violation, if they were electronically filed this an example of a computer crime. Mass-Marketing Fraud informs potential victims through e-mail that they many have won sweepstakes or a foreign lottery but in turn these criminal are looking for identity and financial information. Criminology in the Future
Future directions of crime fighting and its role in social policy implication Future directions are abstract; people who study the future, also called futurists, make predictions based upon our present point of view. These people distinguish among impending possibilities; making realistic forecasts based on such assessments. Future criminology is the study of likely futures as they relate to crime and its control, and futurists working in the area of criminology try to imagine how crime will look in both the near and distant future. Futurists make assumptions about the future so they can plan, prepare, and prevent crime.
According to Criminology Today, in 2002, Police Futurists Internationalist joined the FBI to create the Futures Working Group, whose aim is to develop and encourage others to develop forecasts and strategies to maximize ethically the effectiveness of local, state, federal, and international law enforcement bodies as they strive to maintain peace and security in the 21st century.
A report by the increasing effects of globalization would lead to a world of new crimes, like energy smuggling and produce conditions. They stated that the Internet was very influential in shaping the future of the social world. The boundaries between criminal syndicated, terrorists groups, andgangs will continue to disappear. Electronic and philosophical ones will replace physical boundaries as individuals discover new virtual communities (Criminology Today, p. 421). In the United Kingdom, Foresight Crime Prevention Program, led by the government, bring people knowledge and ideas to look ahead and prepare for the future (Criminology Today, p. 422).
According to Criminology today social characteristics will affect the future crimes throughout the world. More people in a single-person household will be self-centered, self-indulgent, and have hedonistic personalities. Information communication technology, a second characteristic will also affect crime in the near future. Crime, like electronic fraud and theftrapidly increase, reducing the likelihood of offenders caught and websites will become Criminology in the Future
highly targeted properties with cites in English, the hardest hit. Courts will increase acceptance of digital evidence and jurors, judges, and attorneys will need education in relevant technologies (Criminology Today, p. 423). Murder, rape, robbery, and other everyday crimes will continue to merge onto the future. White-collar crimes will increase and be economic and computer based, such as disruptions of business, theft, false information, and tampering with files. According to Criminology Today, Richter h. Moore Jr. explains that criminal organizations will be able to afford their own satellite.
Drug trafficking and money laundering could be coordinated via satellite communications, couriers, and shipment could be tracked and satellite surveillance could provide alerts of enforcements activity. Moore went on to explain that prostitution rings will use modern technology to coordinate global activities and that many children and fetuses may become subject to unlawful trafficking (Criminology Today, p. 425).
The potential for specific crime-fighting methodologies, such as using biometrics, implementing cybercrime spyware, or mandating DNA collection programs The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been using biometrics for many years; this began when the FBI took over the cataloguing of fingerprints in 1924. Sherlock Holmes of literary history also used biometrics as a crime-fighting too in using pictures and fingerprints to identify a criminal or a victim.
The London Metropolitan Police in 1901 was the first organized attempt to use biometrics as a means of identification. Fingerprinting, photo documenting, computers, and the Internet have been in use for the fast transfer of files and searching and finding the one fingerprint out of the billions of
Criminology in the Future fingerprints on file with the FBI and other worldwide Law Enforcement Organizations. England set up a large system of cameras starting in London for the use of observing and monitoring criminal activity among the population. These cameras capture video of crimes committed in real-time with the added use of photo ID tracking; the videos also provide the name any suspect with an arrest history. Cameras help in identifying criminals and persons of interest when documenting body art and scars from surgeries, accidents, and fights. The police and prisons use it to identify someone’s gang affiliation by comparing his or her tattoos to a gang on file to secure safety of the jails and prisons. The use of RFID chips technology provides the ability to track individuals.
The Radio Frequency Identification chip reads from a short distance to identify the location of a suspect when the chip passes a monitor unit. The police utilize this technology when searching for a suspect. The Radio Frequency Identification “is used all around us” (What is RFID?) such as using “EZPass through a toll booth, or paying for gas using SpeedPass” (What is RFID?) There is also a new technology called the tattoo chip that connects by WIFI to a tracking system and monitors a person’s vital signs in hospitals in place of hooking the patient up to machines.
This device is capable of reading things such as temperature and heart rate and “could soon be as simple as sticking on a tiny, wireless patch similar to a temporary tattoo” (Chip and Skin). DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) has already become a biometric tool for the identification of criminals and victims. Law enforcement uses DNA to assist in the identification of already registered criminals in the system for crimes they have recently committed, or committed long before the system was implemented. DNA can also exonerate innocent people wrongly convicted in a court of law by identifying the true criminal that committed the crime. Criminology in the Future
Retina imaging is another biometric tool that has been used and is growing in the security field. The retina imaging system takes pictures of the eye and retains the image and is more effective than a facial image because the retina cannot be changed through any type of enhancement. The use of dental records identifies the dead and assists in convicting a criminal because of the unique differences of teeth from person to person, similar to the use of fingerprints. Implementing cybercrime and spyware
Law enforcement presently uses cell phone tracking and the Global Positioning System in attempting to track individuals considered a suspect of a crime. The GPS can track a person’s movement and identify the person’s location. Also computer based strategies have the ability to monitor a person’s criminal activity over the Internet. The advancement of biometrics, cybercrime, and spyware as well as DNA collection, causes a concern for today’s citizens as the use of these new technologies raises questions to their implementation and what is Constitutional. How agencies can utilize biometrics under existing laws determines the real future.
The security of the United States is the priority and the implementation of these types of biometrics will assist in monitoring and minimizing criminal activity. Evolving law enforcement and forensic technologies used to detect criminal activities. Times change, generations change, and crimes change that means law enforcement and forensic technologies must change as well. Law enforcement must adapt and anticipate what the future holds for criminal activities in connection with the vast spectrum of forensic scientists in
Criminology in the Future their studies and advancements. Forensics plays an important role in detecting criminal activity. Every existing or future crime must have a matching tool or technology for law enforcement to use.
Every existing or future crime must have a matching tool or technology for law enforcement to use. For example, the day-to-day operations of law enforcement on the streets continuousadvancements within their patrol car must occur. Patrol cars come outfitted with the latest technologies, including mounted thermal imagers that pan and tilt, automatic license plate recognition that uses optical character recognition technology with up to distances of 450 feet, and digital video systems that record forward and rear video. Inside, the vehicles contain mobile digital computer systems that provide access to the Internet, law enforcement databases, GPS, and even instant fingerprint identification.
These technologies turn the patrol car into a one-stop shop to provide all the information an officer needs to make an appropriate arrest (Wethal, 2012). The tools created by forensic scientists continue to keep law enforcement ahead of crime. Tools such as the stamp-sized sniff sensor that can identify 20 different poisonous gases and chemical toxins and instantly can provide homeland security an advantage over terrorism (Page, 2011). One forensic geologist designed a forward-scanning handheld sensor capable of detecting voids in as-much-as 100 feet below in most soil conditions utilizing earth-borne acoustic energy.
This tool quickly became a favorite among ICE, DEA, and Border Patrol agents in the fight against drug and human trafficking crimes (Page, 2012). Some future technologies in the works include long-range acoustic devices, which act as effective noise deterrents with 95+ decibel sounds to stop a situation in its tracks and unmanned drones that complete missions of tracking terrorists and drug traffickers with no human risk involved. The eagerly awaited all-in-one complete weapons system Criminology in the Future combines an infantry rifle and a 25 mm grenade launcher with a High Explosive Incendiary with tracer ammunition. The ammunition encompasses the capability of numerous behaviors, such as entering a building before exploding, examining obstacles, and even performing strategic maneuvers to find the correct target.
The constantly evolving world of nanotechnology provides so many unthinkable tools to the standard person who assist law enforcement in ways such as bulletproof body armor, biologically enhanced weapons, and even reproducing latent evidence from biological remnants of DNA (Top 10 Future Law Enforcement Technologies, 2012). Websites, such as Law Enforcement Technology, PoliceOne.Com, and Officer.Com, abound providing detailed information of the arsenal of tools and technologies available to law enforcement, anyone taking the time to look for anyone.
One can just imagine the covert technology, unknown to society, utilized by secret servicemen and women. Law enforcement cannot rely on these tools and technologies alone but require the experts who know how to use them effectively. The FBI has formed numerous task and strike forces and partnerships order tocombat evolving crime in all areas of white-collar, drug trafficking, smuggling, and terrorism. The FBI deploys agents imbedded into the SEC, foreign police agencies, and in numerous intelligence community agencies (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.).
Last, the FBI works hard to bring all levels of law enforcement together by building the Law Enforcement National Data Exchange (N-Dex). This delivers an all-encompassing nationwide single access point linking investigations and suspects, along with criminal trends, hotspots, and searches by clues such as tattoos (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.). Possible civil liberty or ethical violations as they relate to the evolving technologies
Criminology in the Future DNA, Nanotechnology, and thermal imaging are all a topic of discussion in our courts and law enforcement. The question that has yet to be answered is does this evolving technology violate a person’s civil liberties? Nanotechnology is “referred to commonly as molecular manufacturing” (Velitchkov, 2012, p. 404). Some may show that it has made a major impact on medical treatments; it has also helped our military with weapons and law enforcement together. Just as advantages exist with this technology, so does disadvantages that can also violate human rights.
A main concern of society with nanotechnology debates the possibility that it ultimatelycan violate our Constitutional right to privacy. For example “monitoring and tracking devices that invade our everyday lives without our knowledge” (Velitchkov, 2012, p. 404). This is why this technology in particular must be discussed before releasing its use to our government. Another evolving technology is thermal imaging cameras, just as with nanotechnology, the issue here is the right of privacy. Thermal imaging can scan areas and take numerous infrared pictures within a certain range
. In Massachusetts the American Civil Liberties Union brought up the point that by having such technology would reveal activities in a person’s home (Van Der Pool, 2001). This violates the fourth amendment of an American’s right to privacy. DNA is a forensic science in use for quite some time now, but as we continue to evolve in science so does the processing of DNA. Today the majority of people arrested have a sample of their DNA on file. Law enforcement gathers samples of DNA at crime scenes and brings it back to the lab where they compare it to what they have in the DNA database. The argument is that taking DNA from arrestees is in violation of the 4th amendment of unreasonable search and seizures (DNA Forensics, LLC 2012). Criminology in the Future
Conclusion As we have discussed in this paper the world of the criminal is always advancing. The crime fighting is keeping up with the criminal world and in some ways has surpassed it. The new technologies are ground breaking and crucial to the fight on cybercrime, terrorism, bribery, andmore, are advancing every day. The ease to which someone gains another person’s financial information and uses it to commit identity theft in this society is largely digital is alarming. The law enforcement community has employed hackers in some cases to help them determine the weak spots in software and security programs so they can make the systems safer to the consumers to use.
They can also help create software that can help track down the area and in some cases the criminal that committed the cybercrime. In a world where DNA is very helpful in making sure the right person is arrested for a crime or even proves a person is innocent, the new collection techniques being developed are vital to the success of DNA programs. The methods, in which they are tested, obtained, and even stored are very important and constantly being updated to ensure a successful programs. Crime in this world will always change. Therefore, so will the advancement of the Criminal Justice Field.
- 5th Amendment: An Overview Retrieved fromhttp://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/fifth_amendment
- 14th Amendment to the US Constitution. (2012). Retrieved fromhttp://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/14thamendment.html
- 14th Amendment (n.d.) Retrieved fromhttp://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv Amendment 1 (n.d.) Retrieved fromhttp://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/first_amendment
- Chip and Skin: How hi-tech ‘tattoo’ will monitor patients’ vial signs By: Daily Mail Reporter April 12, 2012 Retrieved fromhttp://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2025102/Electronic-skin-How-hi-tech-tattoo-monitor-patients-vital-signs.html
- Civil Liberty (n.d.) Retrieved fromhttp://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/civil%20liberty
- Code of Ethics. (2013). Retrieved fromhttp://www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/About-JPMC/code-of-ethics.htm
- Homeland Security Act, Patriot Act, Freedom of Information Act, and HIM (Updated June 2004) Lou Ann Wiedemann, MS, RHIA, FAHIMA, CPEHR. Retrieved from http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok1_048641.hcsp?dDocName=bok1_048641
- Page, D. (2012, February). Dig This. Law Enforcement Technology, (), 27-31. Retrieved fromhttp://let.epubxpress.com/wps/portal/let/c1/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3iLkCAPEzcPIwMDFy9LA093F28jEwtHQ3cXM_2CbEdFABPvooM!/
- Page, D. (2011, May). Just Say Nose: New sensor lets police breathe easier. Law Enforcement Technology, (), 18-23. Retrieved fromhttp://let.epubxpress.com/wps/portal/let/c1/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3iLkCAPEzcPIwMDFy9LA093F28jEwtHQ3cXM_2CbEdFABPvooM!/
- Professional Code of Conduct. (2013). Retrieved fromhttp://www.americanbar.org/groups/professional_responsibility/publications/model_rules_of_professional_conduct/model_rules_of_prof
- Public Law 107-56-OCT. 26, 2001 U.S. Patriot ACT 2001 Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ56/pdf/PLAW-107publ56.pdf
- Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminology today: An integrative introduction. (6th ed.). Upper Saddie River, NJ: Prentice Hall Taking the DNA of Arrestees: Protecting the Public or Violating the 4th