Criminology Foreign Lit

Criminology is a highly interdisciplinary field, which most heavily leans on sociology, but also incorporates psychology, biology, anthropology, law, and other fields. The science of criminology has improved in the past few years and it helps us to turn our world into a safer place.

Crime is an inescapable associate of modern life. The effective measures to control criminal behavior are the reasons behind the development of criminology. , This discipline is devoted to developing valid and reliable information that address the causes of crime as well as crime patterns and trends. Not like detectives or investigators, whose opinions about crime can be colored by personal experiences, biases, and values, criminologist remain objective as they study crime and its consequences. Sutherland and Donald Gressey Scope of criminology includes processes of making laws, processes of breaking laws and processes of reacting toward the breaking the laws.

Brief History of Criminology Demonic Perspective (Middle Ages, 1200-1600), Classical School (the late 1700s and the early 1800s ), Neo-classical school (emerged between 1880 and1920 and is still with us today), Positivism (the mid 1800s and early 1900s) and Sociological Criminology (mid 1800s till now). Demonic Perspective satanic possession dominated the way people thought. People who violated the natural order of things were accused of being witches and the punishment for witchcraft was to be burned at the stake.

There are two model of Demonic Perspective, Temptation Model describes people as a weak and temptations to sin are impossible to avoid. Used by religious societies as ways of controlling their deviant populations for serious deviants, capital punishment would be a final solution. The second model is Possession model one way of "curing" the individual is through exorcism-a religious ritual aimed at jettisoning the unclean spirit from the body.

Classical school (Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham) He (Beccaria) believed that "people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.".Punishment should fit the crime. Therefore, punishments for crimes should be standardized and should ensure that the pain suffered by the criminal would be greater than any pleasure that may have been gained by committing the crime. For example, children and the mentally ill were punished just the same as all other criminals.

Bentham believed that individuals weigh the probabilities of present and future pleasures against those of present and future pain people act as human calculators, they put all factors into a sort of mathematical equation to decide whether or not to commit an illegal act J.K. Lavater- He studied the facial features of criminals to see if there was a connection between the shape of their ears, eyes, and nose, and the distance between them, could be connected to anti-social behavior.

Neo-classical School some behaviors are very irrational Self-defense or mistake of fact so, not all persons were completely responsible for their own actions positive treatment toward "mental illness" type explanations. Positivism (Cesare Lombroso) recognized that there were multiple causes that lead people to become criminals, as he acknowledged that environmental factors were also at play.

Sociological Criminology has a two major approaches used today Social-structural approaches to criminology examine the way in which social situations and structures influence or relate to criminal behavior example to this is which seeks to explain crime’s relationship to social and environmental change at a large macro setting, such as a particular major city. Also include conflict theory, which has its roots in Marxism and argues that crime is the result of conflict between different classes in a capitalist society. Laws are made by the group that has power, in order to control those who are powerless.

Social-Process attempt to explain how people become criminals, criminal behavior is something that is learned. The example of this is control theory, identifies the key characteristics, including attachment to others and a “belief in moral validity of rules,” which lead to law-abiding behavior. Lack of these characteristics, then, means that someone is at risk of becoming a criminal. Today, sociology is a huge part of criminology. In 2010, the American Sociological Association actually assigned a special task force to study the relationship between criminology and sociology. Criminology requires an extensive knowledge of sociology.