Criminal Justice and Criminology Analysis

In Australia criminal justice system is viewed to be different from other states in America. This include aspect such as legislation practices method used by law enforcement officers to maintain law and order (policing) , control crimes and punish those who violate law (Richard,2004). These practices carried by police officers, government systems plus other bodies that are charged with human rights are seen to be unique and unfair as far as justice is concerned (Richard, 2004).

This paper is therefore purposely researched to investigate and examine how the current Australian government is treating its indigenous population as per the criminal justice system. According to Carlos, Anna and Rowena(1999),there has been a big debate that there is unfair and unbalanced treatment when law is being enacted, punishment is being given to law breakers and even in the court system when they are making judgments and ruling to the indigenous population (International Centre for prevention of crime, 2003 and Luke, 2000).

In order to clarify the point and justify the statement that the justice system in the current Australian government is unfair and unbalanced to indigenous population, it is in order to do literature review and actually carry out data analysis using various statistical tools. After that the hypothesis will either be accepted or rejected as per the findings (Robson, 1997). Data analysis This is a very important section in research proposal. The findings and result obtained in this section will depict whether the whole research will be repeated or the whole exercise is successful.

Since the methodology used are interviews questionnaires and data from secondary sources. There will be two aspects of data analysis to be practiced. This includes qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis (Neuman, 1997). Most of the analysis of data will be based on qualitative whereby the findings obtained after collecting the information will be verified using academic resources such as journals, magazines, books and articles from various departments. The information from these academic sources should be as correct as possible to ensure liability and validity of the research findings.

For instance articles from the government bodies such as the department of environment and heritage will be used. Other articles will be from the human rights and equal opportunity commission, the united nation committee and the elimination of the racial discrimination, Australian institute of criminology, indigenous law bulletin and internet sources will be thoroughly read and re-read to justify the findings got during research. The information that will be extracted from the scholarly articles will include how justice is implemented on race, gender and age.

The manner and method used by the law enforcement officers to punish law brokers. How the Australian make a ruling and judgment on cases involving the indigenous population will also be analyzed through reading the articles. This will show whether the ruling and judgment is fair and balanced (Hagan, nds). Policing or how the law enforcement officers or police officers attempt to maintain justice will also be examined. This will depend on the first hand information from interviews carried to the natives and even the police officers themselves.

Information from department of human rights will also be thoroughly analyzed in order to help the incoming up with a concrete conclusion whether the criminal justice system (treatment) applied to the indigenous population is fair or not (John Altman, 2007). The last area that will be considered is the prison department. Information on this will be extracted from the various books, journals and other related updated articles. This is to determine the elements that make the prison.

That is to analyze figures on who are the majority in terms of race, gender, and age. A conclusion will then be made on whether to believe that relationship between the criminal justice and the indigenous population is balanced or not (Richard, 2004). The second aspect of data analysis that will be carried is the quantitative one. This is the most accurate one as the findings will be analyzed using powerful statistical tools. The simplest method will be calculating percentages of the composition of prison then compared to the overall population.

This implies that the larger the percentage in the prison , the more unfair and unbalanced the criminal justice system in a percentage will only be calculated on the number making up the prison but also by gender that is whether male or female and finally on race. It looks simple but very easy to understand and more accurate method of analyzing data. The other method of data analysis which is simpler will be finding the various measures of the central tendencies especially the mean.

The mean of those in the prison department, those mistreated by the police officers and even the court system will b e obtained. If the mean is large or high then the practice is unfair. The last method of data analysis is the performing a studied t-test and comparing to the p-value. Analysis of variance (AN OVA) will also be done to analyze the data. The p-value represents the degree of accuracy of coefficient estimation. in p-value we are concern ed with the probability of committing g an error that is involved in accepting the results obtained as valid.

If the statistical significance is large then the null hypothesis will be rejected. This will be done at 95 %c confidence interval. The p-value will be verified with the results from the student –t distribution. As mentioned earlier the value obtained will help in verifying the findings whether criminal al justice system implied on the indigenous population in Australia is unfair and unbalanced. For instance if the results are small then the null hypothesis will be accepted. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be performed using F-distribution.

Actual research study. The act5ual research will be done conducted by the students from Australia taking a unit or a course in criminal justice and criminology. Five law students will be required top help in the study whereby thorough training will be given to them for five days in order to make themselves well familiarized with all the contents in the question are. Piloting of the questionnaire will also be done during this same time so as to make adjustments should thereby be need (Michael, Maxfield and Earl, 2005).

The students will be expected to carryout the interviews in various departments as well as counting the number of prisoners in prison cells. Interviews will be done to the law en forcemeat officers, judges of the court systems, the public in general and relevant organization such as department of human rights and equal opportunities in commission, united nation committee on the elimination of the racial discrimination and department t of Australia institute of criminology.

After effective training to the students, various research tools will be given to them that will be used to collect and record the data for instance: they will be required to carry with themselves a tape recorder, calculators, pens, papers or note books, camera and questionnaires that are supposed to be used in the interviews since these are law students, the information that they should bring must be as accurate as possible.

They are required to explain to the interviewees that the in formation is not for any investigation and the government is not involved at any cost. This will improve the quality of the results and even build confidence on the interviewer as he/she respond to questions during the interview. This is because some may develop fear of being arrested. The actual research is to last for twenty days after which data analysis and presentation will be done.