Background of the industryIn 1973, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated a research program to investigate techniques and technologies for interlinking packet networks of various kinds. The objective was to develop communication protocols which would allow networked computers to communicate transparently across multiple, linked packet networks. This was called the Internetting project and the system of networks which emerged from the research was known as the “Internet.”
In 1986, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the development of the NSFNET which, today, provides a major backbone communication service for the Internet. By the end of 1991, the Internet has grown to include some 5,000 networks in over three dozen countries, serving over 700,000 host computers used by over 4,000,000 people. 1
In 1997, President Clinton recognized Vinton G. Cerf and Robert Khan of TCP/IP protocols, their work with the U.S. National Medal of Technology. In 2005, Vint and Bob received the highest civilian honor bestowed in the U.S., the Presidential Medal of Freedom. It recognizes the fact that their work on the software code used to transmit data across the Internet has put them “at the forefront of a digital revolution that has transformed global commerce, communication, and entertainment.” 2
a. A brief history of the business
Google has chosen to ignore conventional wisdom in designing its business. The company started with seed money from angel investors and brought together two competing venture capital firms to fund its first equity round. While the dotcom boom exploded around it and competitors spent millions on marketing campaigns to “build brand,” Google focused instead on quietly building a better search engine.
The word quickly spread from one satisfied user to another. With superior search technology and a high volume of traffic at its Google.com site, Google’s managers identified two initial opportunities for generating revenue: search services and advertising.
Co-founders Larry Page, president of Products, and Sergey Brin, president of Technology, brought Google to life in September 1998. Since then, the company has grown to more than 10,000 employees worldwide, with a management team that represents some of the most experienced technology professionals in the industry. Dr. Eric Schmidt joined Google as chairman and chief executive officer in 2001. The company has gone a long way from an office in a garage to being Number 1, Best Company to work for in 2007, according to Fortune Magazine.
b. Products and services offered
Over time, these two business lines evolved into complementary networks. Google AdWords advertisers create ads to drive qualified traffic to their sites and generate leads. Google publishing partners deliver those ads targeted to relevant search results powered by Google AdSense. With AdSense, the publisher shares in the revenue generated when readers click on the ads.
For sites wishing to have more control over their intranet or site searches, Google developed the Google Search Appliance, a scalable and secure appliance that delivers accurate search results across any number of documents.
c. 2. Corporate culture and management
Google’s world headquarters building is located in Mountain View, California, a stone’s throw from the Shoreline Regional Park wetlands.
Google has persistently pursued innovation and pushed the limits of existing technology to provide a fast, accurate and easy-to-use search service that can be accessed from anywhere. To fully understand Google, it’s helpful to understand all the ways in which the company has helped to redefine how individuals, businesses and technologists view the Internet.
Google’s emphasis on innovation and commitment to cost containment means each employee is a hands-on contributor. There’s little in the way of corporate hierarchy and everyone wears several hats. The international webmaster who creates Google’s holiday logos spent a week translating the entire site into Korean. The chief operations engineer is also a licensed neurosurgeon. Because everyone realizes they are an equally important part of Google’s success, no one hesitates to skate over a corporate officer during roller hockey.
Google’s hiring policy is aggressively non-discriminatory and favors ability over experience. The result is a staff that reflects the global audience the search engine serves. Google has offices around the globe and Google engineering centers are recruiting local talent in locations from Zurich to Bangalore. Dozens of languages are spoken by Google staffers, from Turkish to Telugu. When not at work, Googlers pursue interests from cross-country cycling to wine tasting, from flying to frisbee. As Google expands its development team, it continues to look for those who share an obsessive commitment to creating search perfection and having a great time doing it.
Philosophy – Never settle for the best
“The perfect search engine,” says Google co-founder Larry Page, “would understand exactly what you mean and give back exactly what you want.” Given the state of search technology today, that’s a far-reaching vision requiring research, development and innovation to realize.
Mission statementGoogle’s mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful. As a first step to fulfilling that mission, Google’s founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin developed a new approach to online search that took root in a Stanford University dorm room and quickly spread to information seekers around the globe. Google is now widely recognized as the world’s largest search engine — an easy-to-use free service that usually returns relevant results in a fraction of a second.
Google has developed ten things that they believe is true, some of them are as follows.
Always place the interests of the user first, through this; Google has built the most loyal audience on the web. And that growth has come not through TV ad campaigns, but through word of mouth from one satisfied user to another.
Their dedication to improving search has also brought about the birth of new products, including Gmail, Google Desktop, and Google Maps. They hope is to bring the power of search to previously unexplored areas, and to help users access and use even more of the ever-expanding information in their lives.
Google believes in instant gratification. Google may be the only company in the world whose stated goal is to have users leave its website as quickly as possible.
Google assesses the importance of every web page using a variety of techniques, including its patented PageRank™ algorithm which analyzes which sites have been “voted” the best sources of information by other pages across the web.
Google’s innovations in this area include Google Number Search, which reduces the number of keypad strokes required to find data from a web-enabled cellular phone and an on-the-fly translation system that converts pages written in HTML to a format that can be read by phone browsers. This benefits mobile users around the world.
However, you may have never seen an ad on Google. That’s because Google does not allow ads to be displayed on our results pages unless they’re relevant to the results page on which they’re shown. So, only certain searches produce sponsored links above or to the right of the results. Google firmly believes that ads can provide useful information if, and only if, they are relevant to what you wish to find.
There’s always more information out there. Once Google had indexed more of the HTML pages on the Internet than any other search service, our engineers turned their attention to information that was not as readily accessible. Sometimes it was just a matter of integrating new databases, such as adding a phone number and address lookup and a business directory.
Google’s mission is to facilitate access to information for the entire world, so they have offices around the globe. To that end Google maintain dozens of Internet domains and serve more than half of the results to users living outside the United States. Google search results can be restricted to pages written in more than 35 languages according to a user’s preference. They also offer a translation feature to make content available to users regardless of their native tongue and for those who prefer not to search in English, Google’s interface can be customized into more than 100 languages.
Google’s founders have often stated that the company is not serious about anything but search. They built a company around the idea that work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun.
In the same way Google puts users first when it comes to our online service, Google Inc. puts employees first when it comes to daily life in all of our offices. There is an emphasis on team achievements and pride in individual accomplishments that contribute to the company’s overall success.
Always deliver more than expected. Google does not accept being the best as an endpoint, but a starting point. Through innovation and iteration, Google takes something that works well and improves upon it in unexpected ways.
These improvements are driven by constant dissatisfaction with the way things are ultimately the force behind the world’s best search engine.
Goals and objectives and employee empowerment are two of the strategies employed by the company. I believe that those are the two motivational strategies employed by Google because they give much emphasis on their goals of the company to provide for their users. They use the company goals and objectives to inspire all their employees, which I believe is a strategy derived from the founders of the company itself. The founders’ story of success is embedded in every employee and thus even the company brings a spirit of camaraderie though different outside activities like roller hockey and other sport events. These employee empowerment strategies are quite motivating
2 http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompanies/2007/snapshots/1.html Fortune Magazine, January, 2007 issue, downloaded, December 17, 2007.