Common law Essay Example

2 LAW & CONTRACT INTRODUCTION THIS ASSIGNMENT IS BASED ON DIFFERENT BRANCHES AND SOURCES OF LAW UNDER THE ENGLISH LAW. THE FIRST TASK EXPLAIN NATURE OF LAW AND OTHER FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS RELATING TO ENGLISH LAW. SECOND TASK EXPLAIN BRANCHES OF LAW RELATING TO THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF UK & SRI LANKA. THIRD TASK EXPLAIN DIFFERENT SOURCES OF LAW THAT APPLY IN SRI LANKA FOURTH TASK EXPLAIN DIFFERENT COURT OF LAW AND ITS CIVIL, CRIMINAL & APPELLATE JURISDICTION. LAST TASK EXPLAIN APPLICABILITY OF LAW RELATING TO THE PROFESSIONAL IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. INCLUDING CONTACTS AND TORTS 2 LAW & CONTRACT TASK 1 Definition of law.

IT IS POSSIBLE TO DESCRIBE LAW AS THE BODY OF OFFICIAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, GENERALLY FOUND IN CONSTITUTIONS, LEGISLATION, JUDICIAL OPINIONS, AND THE LIKE, THAT IS USED TO GOVERN A SOCIETY AND TO CONTROL THE BEHAVIOR OF ITS MEMBERS, SO LAW IS A FORMAL MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CONTROL. LEGAL SYSTEMS ARE PARTICULAR WAYS OF ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING SOCIAL ORDER. LAW IS A SYSTEM OF RULES AND GUIDELINES WHICH ARE ENFORCED THROUGH SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS TO GOVERN BEHAVIOR, WHEREVER POSSIBLE. LAWS ARE MADE BY GOVERNMENTS, AND NOWADAYS MORE SPECIFICALLY, BY PARLIAMENTS. IT SHAPES POLITICS, ECONOMICS AND SOCIETY.

IN NUMEROUS WAYS AND SERVES AS A SOCIAL MEDIATOR OF RELATIONS BETWEEN PEOPLE. 2 LAW & CONTRACT Nature of law NATURAL LAW OR THE LAW OF NATURE IS A SYSTEM OF LAW, WHICH ALLEGEDLY DETERMINED NATURE, AND THUS VERSATILE. HISTORICALLY, NATURAL LAW REFERS TO THE USE OF REASON TO ANALYZE HUMAN NATURE AND THE SOCIAL AND PERSONAL AND BRING BINDING RULES OF MORAL BEHAVIOR. NATURE POSITIVE LAW IS CONTRASTED WITH THE LAW OF THIS POLITICAL COMMUNITY, SOCIETY OR NATION-STATE AND THUS SERVES AS A STANDARD BY WHICH TO CRITIQUE SAID POSITIVE LAW. NATURAL LAW THEORY, WHICH HOLDS THAT MORALITY, IS A FUNCTION.

OF HUMAN NATURE AND REASON CAN DETECT ACTS MORAL PRINCIPLES, LOOKING AT THE NATURE OF HUMANITY IN SOCIETY, THE CONTENT OF POSITIVE LAW CANNOT BE KNOWN WITHOUT SOME REFERENCE TO THE NATURAL LAW. USED IN THIS WAY, NATURAL LAW CAN BE INVOKED TO CRITICIZE DECISIONS ABOUT THE STATUTE, BUT TO A LESSER EXTENT TO CRITICIZE THE LAW ITSELF. SOME OF THEM USE NATURAL LAW AS A SYNONYM OF NATURAL JUSTICE OR NATURAL LAW. NO ONE CAN BE ABOVE THE LAW. EVERYONE MUST OBEY THE LAW AND COMPLY WITH. IN ORDER TO COMPLY WITH THE LAW, YOU MUST HAVE SOME IDEA ABOUT THE LAW. HOW TO APPLY BUSINESS LAW, YOUR DAY-TO-DAY WORK, MAY INCLUDE LEGAL.

ISSUES AND INTERPRETATION LAWS AND REGULATIONS. IN ADDITION TO THE ABOVE REASONS, THE CITIZENS NEED TO UNDERSTAND THAT THEIR BEHAVIOR STEMS FROM THE LAW. SO IGNORANCE OF THE LAW IS NO EXCUSE. ALL CITIZENS SHOULD KNOW THE LAW. SINCE IGNORANCE OF THE LAW IS NO EXCUSE. THE NEED FOR KNOWLEDGE OF THE LAW CANNOT BE OVERSTATED. NOWADAYS, ALMOST ALL HUMAN ACTIVITIES AFFECT THE RIGHTS IN ONE FORM OR ANOTHER. AS IT IS, AS SHOWN ABOVE, THE “LAW” IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF ANY SOCIETY. NO CIVILIZED SOCIETY CAN FUNCTION WITHOUT LAW. 2 LAW & CONTRACT THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND (UK) CONSISTS.

OF FOUR COUNTRIES: ENGLAND, WALES, SCOTLAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND. SOME LAW APPLIES THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE OF THE UK; SOME APPLIES IN ONLY ONE, TWO OR THREE COUNTRIES. THIS WEBPAGE DESCRIBES LAW THAT APPLIES EITHER TO THE WHOLE OF THE UK, OR TO ENGLAND AND WALES. IT DOES NOT COVER LAW THAT APPLIES ONLY TO WALES, SCOTLAND OR NORTHERN IRELAND. Sources of UK Law THE FOUR PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF UK LAW ARE LEGISLATION, COMMON LAW, EUROPEAN UNION LAW AND THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS. THERE IS NO SINGLE SERIES OF DOCUMENTS THAT CONTAINS THE WHOLE OF THE LAW OF THE UK. Legislation.

LEGISLATION IS LAW THAT IS CREATED BY A LEGISLATURE. THE MOST IMPORTANT PIECES OF LEGISLATION ARE ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. THE PRINCIPAL LEGISLATURE IS THE UK PARLIAMENT, WHICH IS BASED IN LONDON. THIS IS THE ONLY BODY THAT HAS THE POWER TO PASS LAWS THAT APPLY IN ALL FOUR COUNTRIES. THE UK PARLIAMENT CONSISTS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS AND THE HOUSE OF LORDS. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS CONSISTS OF 650 MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT (MPS). EACH MP REPRESENTS A DEFINED GEOGRAPHIC CONSTITUENCY, WHOSE ELECTORS VOTE USING A “FIRST-PAST-THE-POST” SYSTEM. EACH ELECTOR HAS ONE VOTE, AND THE CANDIDATE WITH THE HIGHEST NUMBER OF VOTES IS ELECTED AS MP FOR THAT CONSTITUENCY.

IN MAY 2011, A REFERENDUM WILL BE HELD ON WHETHER THE VOTING SYSTEM SHOULD CHANGE TO AN ALTERNATIVE VOTE SYSTEM. IF THIS HAPPENS, THE NUMBER OF CONSTITUENCIES WILL BE REDUCED TO 600. THE HOUSE OF LORDS CONSISTS OF NEARLY 800 PEERS, OF WHOM 600 ARE FORMALLY APPOINTED BY THE QUEEN ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE PRIME MINISTER. THE OTHER MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS ARE PEOPLE WHO 2 LAW & CONTRACT HAVE INHERITED ARISTOCRATIC TITLES SUCH AS “LORD” OR “LADY”, AND SENIOR BISHOPS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. THE SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT, NORTHERN IRELAND ASSEMBLY AND NATIONAL.

ASSEMBLY FOR WALES EACH HAVE THE POWER TO PASS LAWS ON DEVOLVED MATTERS: THESE LAWS APPLY ONLY IN THE COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY WERE PASSED. EACH OF THESE LEGISLATURES HAS ITS OWN WEBSITE. Task 2 Categories of law (Branches of law) LAW IS A VERY COMPLEX AND ARDUOUS ISSUE, AND THIS IS NOT SOMETHING THAT EVERYONE CAN UNDERSTAND. THERE ARE 2 MAIN CATEGORIES OF BRANCHES OF LAW, ?CRIMINAL LAW 2 LAW & CONTRACT ?CIVIL LAW THE JUSTICE SYSTEM DIVIDED INTO TO TWO DISTINCT BRANCHES, CIVIL LAW AND CRIMINAL LAW. THE BEHAVIOR OF CITIZENS IN THE UK IS GOVERNED BY STATE LAWS FOUND IN THE STATE CRIMINAL CODES AND FEDERAL LAWS FOUND IN THE FEDERAL PENAL CODE.

WHEN A PERSON COMMITS A CRIME, HE OR SHE VIOLATES ONE OF THESE LAWS AND CRIMINAL CHARGES ARE FILED. IN SOME CASES, A SINGLE ACT MAY VIOLATE BOTH FEDERAL AND STATE LAW. IN SUCH CASES, WHETHER A DEFENDANT IS PROSECUTED IN FEDERAL COURT OR STATE COURT IS AT THE DISCRETION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM DISTRICT ATTORNEY. Criminal law THE CRIMINAL LAW IS A FORM OF PUBLIC LAW DESIGNED TO PREVENT OR ENFORCE CERTAIN TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR AND PUNISH OFFENDERS. CRIMINAL CASES ARE HEARD FIRST IN THE MAGISTRATES COURT OR THE CROWN COURT. A PROSECUTION IS BROUGHT BY THE CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE (CPS) USUALLY FOLLOWING

POLICE INVESTIGATION AND ARREST. THE DEFENDANT WILL BE TRIED BY MAGISTRATES IN THE MAGISTRATES COURT FOR NON-SERIOUS CRIMES OR BY JUDGE AND JURY IN THE CROWN COURT FOR SERIOUS CRIMES. IN CRIMINAL CASES, THE BURDEN OF PROOF IS KNOWN AS ‘BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT’ WHICH MEANS THAT THE JURY MUST HAVE NO REASONABLE DOUBT IN THE THEIR MIND THAT THE DEFENDANT IS GUILTY OF THE CRIME HE IS BEING TRIED FOR. IF FOUND GUILTY, THE DEFENDANT CAN BE FINED AND/OR IMPRISONED OR MADE SUBJECT TO A COMMUNITY ORDER. CRIMINAL LAW INVOLVES PROSECUTION BY THE GOVERNMENT OF A PERSON FOR AN ACT THAT HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED AS A CRIME.

CIVIL CASES, ON THE OTHER HAND, INVOLVE INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS SEEKING TO RESOLVE LEGAL DISPUTES. IN A CRIMINAL CASE, THE STATE, THROUGH A PROSECUTOR, INITIATES THE SUIT, WHILE IN A CIVIL CASE THE VICTIM BRINGS THE SUIT. PERSONS CONVICTED OF A CRIME MAY BE INCARCERATED, FINED, OR BOTH. HOWEVER, PERSONS FOUND LIABLE IN A CIVIL CASE MAY ONLY HAVE TO GIVE UP PROPERTY OR PAY MONEY, BUT ARE NOT INCARCERATED. CRIMES ARE GENERALLY CATEGORIZED AS ?FELONIES ?MISDEMEANORS 2 LAW & CONTRACT THESE ARE BASED ON THEIR NATURE AND THE MAXIMUM PUNISHMENT THAT CAN BE IMPOSED. A FELONY, SOMETIMES CALLED A “HIGH CRIME,” INVOLVES

SERIOUS MISCONDUCT THAT IS PUNISHABLE BY DEATH OR BY IMPRISONMENT OF OVER ONE YEAR (ALTHOUGH THE PUNISHMENT CAN BE LESS THAN ONE YEAR AT THE JUDGE’S DISCRETION). MOST STATE CRIMINAL LAWS SUBDIVIDE FELONIES INTO CLASSES WITH VARYING DEGREES OF PUNISHMENT. EXAMPLES OF FELONIES INCLUDE MURDER, MANSLAUGHTER, RAPE, FRAUD, ROBBERY, RACKETEERING, ARSON AND WHITE COLLAR CRIME. LESSER CRIMES ARE CLASSIFIED AS MISDEMEANORS. A MISDEMEANOR IS MISCONDUCT PUNISHABLE BY UP TO ONE YEAR IN PRISON AND/OR A FINE. EXAMPLES OF MISDEMEANORS INCLUDE TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS, PETTY THEFT, SIMPLE ASSAULT AND BATTERY, TRESPASS AND PUBLIC INTOXICATION.

Types of Crimes BELOW IS NOT A COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF ALL CRIMES BUT IT IS A SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE MORE COMMON PRACTICE AREAS OF A CRIMINAL LAWYER. ?SEX CRIMES ?THEFT CRIMES ?DRUG CRIMES 2 LAW & CONTRACT ?EMBEZZLEMENT ?DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ?VIOLENT CRIMES ?GUN CRIMES ?JUVENILE CRIMES ?MURDER ?CRIMINAL TRAFFIC OFFENSES/ SUSPENDED LICENSES ?APPEALS ?

PROBATION/COMMUNITY CONTROL VIOLATIONS ?TRAFFIC CITATIONS/TICKETS ?DUI DEFENSE FURTHERMORE, IT IS NOT JUST THE CRIMINAL LAW ITSELF THAT IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING AND DEVELOPING TO MEET NEW CIRCUMSTANCES. POLICE POWERS AND THE LAW ON SENTENCING ARE ALSO SUBJECT TO REVIEW AND RECENT TENSIONS BETWEEN THE LEGISLATURE AND THE AGENCIES WHO EXERCISE THESE POWERS AND LAWS HAVE BEEN BROUGHT TO THE PUBLIC’S ATTENTION BY THE MEDIA E. G.

THE NUMBER OF DAYS THAT POLICE CAN HOLD TERROR SUSPECTS FOR QUESTIONING OR, IN RELATION TO THE MAXIMUM SENTENCES SERIOUS OFFENDERS CAN BE GIVEN BY THE COURTS. Civil law CIVIL LAW NON-CRIMINAL DISPUTES SUCH AS DISAGREEMENTS OVER THE MEANING OF THE SOLUTION CONTRACTS, PROPERTY, DIVORCE, CHILD CUSTODY, AND DAMAGES FOR PERSONAL AND PROPERTY DAMAGE. A CIVIL COURT IS A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE SOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS WITH PEOPLE PEACEFULLY. THE FUNCTION OF CIVIL LAW IS TO PROVIDE LEGAL MEANS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS.

CIVIL LAW SOMETIMES BASED ON STATE OR FEDERAL LAW; AT OTHER TIMES CIVIL LAW IS BASED IS BASED ON A COURT DECISION. THE COUNTY COURT HEARS ALL ‘SMALL CLAIMS’ CASES (USUALLY UNDER ? 5,000) AND THE SIMPLER ‘FAST TRACK’ CASES OF ? 5,000 – ? 15,000. CASES WHERE THE DISPUTED AMOUNT IS ABOVE ? 15,000 ARE CALLED ‘MULTI-TRACK’ CASES AND THESE CAN SOMETIMES BE TRIED IN THE COUNTY COURT. COMPLEX CASES ABOVE ? 15,000 WILL BE TRIED IN THE HIGH COURT. Parties in a civil law case MAINLY TWO CATEGORIES IN CIVIL LAW CASE AS FOLLOWING 2 LAW & CONTRACT PLAINTIFF – THE PERSON WHO FEELS HE OR SHE HAS NOT BEEN TREATED FAIRLY BY ANOTHER PERSON AND SEEKS A SOLUTION IN A CIVIL COURT. THIS PARTY HAS THE BURDEN OF PROVING THAT HE OR SHE WAS TREATED UNFAIRLY.

DEFENDANT – THE PERSON WHO THE PLAINTIFF CLAIMS HAS TREATED HIM OR HER UNFAIRLY. Types of civil cases CIVIL LAW COVERS A WIDE SPECTRUM OF TOPICS. ?CONSUMER LAW ?LAND LAW ?AGRICULTURAL LAW ?EMPLOYMENT LAW ?ANIMAL LAW ?ENTERTAINMENT LAW ?BUSINESS LAW ?FAMILY LAW 2 LAW & CONTRACT ?SPORTS LAW ?TAX LAW ?INDUSTRIAL LAW (LABOUR LAW) ?BANKING LAW Classification of Civil law CIVIL LAW CAN BE CLASSED AS: ?

PRIVATE LAW ?PUBLIC LAW Private law PRIVATE LAW IS THAT PART OF THE CIVIL LAW LEGAL SYSTEM, THE PART OF THE COMMUNE IUS, WHICH INCLUDES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, SUCH AS CONTRACT LAW AND THE LAW OF TORTS OR LIABILITIES. IT PUBLIC LAW, WHICH ARE DISTINGUISHED BY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADDRESSES IN NATURAL AND LEGAL PERSONS AND THE STATE, INCLUDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF REGULATIONS, CRIMINAL LAW AND OTHER LAW, THE CAUSE OF PUBLIC ORDER. IN GENERAL PRIVATE LAW INCLUDES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PRIVATE CITIZENS, INCLUDING BUT PUBLIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND GENERAL POPULATION. AS FOLLOWS THERE ARE MANY DIVISIONS OF PRIVATE LAW. THOSE AREAS OF LAW ARE ALSO COVER CIVIL LAW AREAS. PRIVATE LAW BRANCH OF CIVIL LAW, ?LAW OF PROPERTY ?LAW OF PERSONS ?

LAW OF CONTRACT ?LAW OF TORTS ?PARTNERSHIP LAW ?COMPANY LAW ?BANKING LAW ?INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW ?INDUSTRIAL AND LABOUR LAW ?FAMILY LAW 2 LAW & CONTRACT Law of property PROPERTY LAW IS THE AREA OF THE LAW THAT GOVERNS THE VARIOUS FORMS OF OWNERSHIP AND TENANCY IN REAL TERMS REAL ESTATE AND PERSONAL PROPERTY, IN THE COMMON LAW LEGAL SYSTEM. IN THE CIVIL LAW SYSTEM, PROPERTY IS SPLIT BETWEEN MOBILE AND IMMOVABLE. MOVEABLE ROUGHLY CORRESPONDS TO PERSONAL PROPERTY WHILE PROPERTY CORRESPONDS TO REAL ESTATE OR PROPERTY RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS AND THOSE ASSOCIATED. Law of persons.

HOW DIFFERENT FROM “PROPERTY LAW”, “PEOPLE’S LAW” APPLIES TO FAMILY OR DOMESTIC ISSUES SUCH AS BIRTH AND LEGITIMACY, MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, ADOPTION, THE RIGHT FOR PARENTS AND CHILDREN, HUSBAND AND WIFE, GUARDIAN AND WARD, MENTALLY UNHEALTHY PEOPLE AND PROFLIGATE. Law of contract PART OF CONTRACT LAW AND CIVIL LAW AFFECTING THE ENFORCEABILITY OF AGREEMENTS MADE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE PEOPLE. ALL CONTRACTS ARE BASED ON CONTRACT, EACH CONTRACT NOT RESULT IN THE CONTRACT. A CONTRACT IS A LEGAL AGREEMENT IS LEGALLY BINDING AND ENFORCEABLE. CONTRACT LAW IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT BRANCHES OF BUSINESS OR COMMERCIAL LAW, AS.

WITHOUT CONTRACTS NOT BEEN PERFORMED LITTLE OR NO BUSINESS. INCLUDES MANY SPECIALIZED AREAS OF COMMERCIAL LAW SUCH AS – BANKING, INSURANCE, SHIPPING, SALE OF GOODS, AGREEMENTS TO PROVIDE SERVICES ETC. Law of torts JUSTICE TORT LAW IN THE ANGLO-SAXON, A CITIZEN IS WRONG. TORT LAW DEALS WITH THE SITUATION WHERE PERSON WRONGFUL BEHAVIOR CAUSE SOMEONE TO SUFFER LOSS OR DAMAGE. NOT TORT NECESSARILY AN ILLEGAL ACT, BUT HARM. THE ACT ALLOWS ANYONE, THE DAMAGE IS TO RECOVER LOSERS. TORT LAW IS DIFFERENT FROM CRIMINAL LAW, WITH SITUATIONS WHERE A PERSON IS BUSY ACTIONS 2 LAW & CONTRACT CAUSING HARM TO SOCIETY IN GENERAL.

AN APPLICATION IN TORT CAN COME FROM ANYONE WHO HAS SUFFERED DAMAGE. Partnership law PARTNERSHIP IS THE SIMPLEST FORM COMBINED, OPERATING COMPANY. IT TURNS WHEN TWO OR MORE PEOPLE CONDUCT BUSINESS AND MAKE ALONG WITH THE OBJECT PROFIT. IT REQUIRES NO PAPERWORK AND NO REGISTRATION. IT IS VERY FLEXIBLE. PARTNERSHIPS FOR SEVERAL CENTURIES. RULES GOVERNING EXTERNAL: THE PARTNERSHIP LAW RULES FALL INTO TWO RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PARTNERSHIP AND DEAL WITH IT (CUSTOMERS, ETC. ); AND INTERNAL RULES GOVERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PARTNERS THEMSELVES. Company law COMPANY LAW IS THE AREA OF LAW THAT COMPANIES AND OTHER BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS.

THIS INCLUDES CORPORATIONS, PARTNERSHIPS AND OTHER ASSOCIATIONS WHICH USUALLY CARRY ON SOME FORM OF ECONOMIC OR NON-PROFIT ACTIVITIES. THE MOST PROMINENT TYPE OF COMPANY, USUALLY REFERRED TO AS A “CORPORATION” IS A “LEGAL PERSON”, I. E. IT HAS ITS OWN LEGAL PERSONALITY, AND THOSE WHO INVEST LIMITED MONEY IN THE BUSINESS LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS, MAKES THE COMPANY, SUBJECT TO COMPANY LAW. THE LARGEST COMPANIES ARE USUALLY PUBLICLY ON STOCK EXCHANGES AROUND THE LISTED WORLD. EVEN INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE ALSO KNOWN AS A SOLE TRADER, MAY THEMSELVES AND TAKE OVER BORDER THEIR LIABILITY, OPERATES A COMPANY. ALL.

DIFFERENT FORMS OF BUSINESSES DEPEND ON THE PARTICULAR LAW OF THE COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY RESIDE. Banking law BANKING LAW IS REGULATED BY BOTH STATE AND FEDERAL LAW. BANK ACCOUNTS CAN ESTABLISH BY BANKS AND SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC STATE. EVERYTHING IS CONTROLLED BY LAW UNDER WHICH THEY WERE BUILT. 2 LAW & CONTRACT BANKING LAW IS THE LAW APPLICABLE TO ALL ACTIVITIES AND TRANSACTIONS UNDERTAKEN BY A BANK BETWEEN BANKS AND THEIR CUSTOMERS. TO BE “CUSTOMER BANK,” A PERSON MUST HAVE A TYPE OF ACCOUNT AT A BANK. WITHOUT SUCH AN ACCOUNT CANNOT BE REGARDED AS A BANK “CUSTOMER”. Intellectual property law.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IS A TERM THAT REFERS TO MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF CREATIONS OF ON THE OTHER HAND, FOR A NUMBER OF EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS ARE RECOGNIZED UNDER THE CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF LAW. UNDER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IS THE OWNER OF CERTAIN EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS TO A VARIETY OF ALLOWABLE INTANGIBLE ASSETS, SUCH AS MUSICAL WORKS, LITERARY, AND ARTISTIC; DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS; AND WORDS, PHRASES, SYMBOLS AND DESIGNS. COMMON TYPES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS COPYRIGHTS, TRADEMARKS, PATENTS, INDUSTRIAL DESIGN RIGHTS AND TRADE SECRETS IN SOME JURISDICTIONS . Industrial and labour law.

LABOUR LAW IS THE BODY OF LAWS, ADMINISTRATIVE JUDGMENTS AND PRECEDENTS WHICH ADDRESSES THE LEGAL RIGHTS AND RESTRICTIONS AND THE PEOPLE WORKING IN THEIR ORGANIZATIONS. AS SUCH, IT PROVIDES A NUMBER OF ASPECTS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRADE UNIONS, EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. IN MOST COUNTRIES, HOWEVER, SUCH A DISTINCTION IS BEING MADE. HOWEVER, THERE ARE TWO MAIN CATEGORIES OF LABOR LAW. FIRST, COLLECTIVE LABOR LAW RELATES TO THE TRIPARTITE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE, EMPLOYER AND UNION. SECOND, INDIVIDUAL LABOR LAW RELATING TO WORKERS’ RIGHTS AT WORK AND THROUGH CONTRACT FOR THE WORK. Family law 2.

LAW & CONTRACT FAMILY LAW IS A PRACTICE AREA THAT ENCOMPASSES THE LEGAL ISSUES THAT FACE FAMILIES. THESE ISSUES INCLUDE: ?DIVORCE ?SPOUSAL SUPPORT ?CHILD SUPPORT ?CUSTODY ?DIVISION OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES DUE TO DIVORCE ?ADOPTION ?TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RIGHTS ?PATERNITY ?DEPENDENCY AND CHILD NEGLECT ?PROTECTION FROM ABUSE Public law THE LAWS REGULATING THE STRUCTURE AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE GOVERNMENT, THE BEHAVIOR THE GOVERNMENT IN ITS RELATIONS WITH CITIZENS, THE RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES AND RELATIONS WITH FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS.

ACCORDING TO PUBLIC LAW, WE CAN DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING LAWS,?ADMINISTRATIVE LAW ?CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ?LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF LAW ?TAX LAW Administrative law DEALING WITH PROCESSES OF DECISION-MAKING BY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND STATUTORY LAW AND ISSUES RELATED TO SUCH DECISIONS. THIS IS A BODY OF LAWS THAT DEAL WITH THE ACTIVITIES AND GOVERNANCE FUNCTIONS GOVERNMENT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES. THESE ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD NOT BE EXEMPT FROM STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION OF LAWS AND ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IS THE BRANCH THAT DEALS WITH DISPUTES ABOUT THE SAME. 2 LAW & CONTRACT Constitutional law DEALING WITH COMPOSITIONS, AS THEY SET THE OVERALL FRAMEWORK OF THE GOVERNMENT.

GOVERNMENT UNITS AND SPECIFIC LEGISLATION, HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES, THE PART SOME COMPOSITIONS, IN THE CORRESPONDING SECTIONS. COMMERCIAL AFFAIRS ALSO TREATED AT THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL LAW. SPECIFY THE TYPE OF GOVERNMENT AND ITS INSTITUTIONS. IT ALSO DEALS WITH THE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF CITIZENS TOWARDS THE GOVERNMENT. IMPORTANT FOR THE CITIZENS IN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW. THUS, QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE SENATE, ELECTIONS, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS, UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE, POPULAR VOTE, CITIZENSHIP WOULD ALSO FALL IN THIS CATEGORY OF LAW. Local government law IN ADDITION TO THE CITIZENS MOST IMPORTANTLY, LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW.

LIKEWISE ISSUES A MUNICIPAL COUNCILS, TOWN COUNCILS AND PRADESHIYA SABAH ALSO BELONG TO THIS CATEGORY OF LAW. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, THOSE TOWNS, VILLAGES, COUNTIES REGULATION, MUNICIPALITIES AND INSTALLATION AND GOVERNED BY STATE LAW. YOUR AUTHORITY IN RELATION TO OTHER UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND RELATIONSHIP WITH STATE GOVERNMENT IS ULTIMATELY BASED ON STATE LAW. THE METHODS USED ARE ELECTED BODIES AND FRAMES OF GOVERNANCE BASED ON STATE LAW AS WELL AS GOVERNANCE. Tax law TAX LAW IS THE CODIFIED SYSTEM OF LAWS THAT DESCRIBES GOVERNMENT LEVIES ON ECONOMIC TRANSACTIONS, COMMONLY CALLED TAXES. TASK 3 Sources of law.

2 LAW & CONTRACT SOURCES OF LAW MEANS, ORIGIN, COMING FROM THE RULES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND CONCLUDED HAVE LEGAL FORCE OR BINDING CHARACTER. IT ALSO REFERS TO THE STATE OR THE STATE WHERE THE LAW DERIVES ITS FORCE AND VALIDITY. PRECEDENT IS ONE OF THE SOURCES OF LAW. THE TRANSFER OF SOME OF THE LEARNED JURISTS VIEWS ARE ANOTHER IMPORTANT SOURCE OF LAW. IF THERE IS NO SPECIFIC LEGISLATION POINT LEADING TO CHANGING CONDITIONS, THE JUDGES RELY ON THEIR OWN SENSE OF RIGHT AND WRONG AND DECIDE THE DISPUTE. SUCH DECISIONS ARE IMPLEMENTED OR AUTHORITY FOR SUBSEQUENT CASES OF CALLED A SIMILAR NATURE AND THEY ARE MODELS.

ALTHOUGH THE LEGAL SYSTEMS THAT EXIST IN THE WORLD EACH OTHER, EACH LEGAL DIFFERENCES SYSTEM INCLUDES A SOURCE OR SOURCES FROM WHICH IT DERIVED THE LAWS APPLIED IN THE SYSTEM. THERE ARE FEW MAIN STAGES OF SOURCES OF LAW, ?LEGISLATION ?CASE LAW (JUDICIAL PRECEDENT/JUDGE-MADE LAW) ?EQUITY ?RELIGION ?CUSTOMS ?PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW ?OPINION OF THE JURISTS/WRITERS Legislation LEGISLATION IS THE SOURCE OF LAW, INCLUDING IN THE STATEMENT OF THE APPLICABLE LEGAL RULES AUTHORITY. LEGISLATIVE IS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF LAW. LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK, NEW LEGISLATION AMENDS THE OLD LAWS AND CUTS IN ALL COUNTRIES OF THE EXISTING ONE.

IN TODAY’S TIME IS THE MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE THE LEGISLATION. LAWMAKERS THE TERM OF ANY LEGISLATION. YOUR REQUEST HAS BEEN SO LIMITED, IN PARTICULAR TYPE OF LEGISLATION. IT NOT ONLY CREATES NEW LEGAL NORMS, IT ALSO SWEPT CURRENT RULES AWAY INCONVENIENT. LEGISLATION IS LAW WHICH HAS BEEN ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OR OTHER BODY, OR METHOD OF PRODUCING. PRE ITEM OF LAW THE LEGISLATION HE IS KNOWN AS A BILL, AND CAN BE GENERALLY REFERRED TO AS “LAWS”, WHILE THEY ARE STILL CONSIDERED TO BE DISCRIMINATION BY OTHER COMPANIES.

2 LAW & CONTRACT LEGISLATION CAN HAVE MANY PURPOSES: TO REGULATE, TO AUTHORIZE, TO PROHIBITION, TO BE ABLE TO PUNISH TO ALLOW, RESTRICT OR DECLARE Case law (judicial precedent/judge-made law) MAKING COURT DECISIONS, INTERPRETATIONS BY JUDGES, WHILE THE DECISION ON THE LEGAL ISSUES IN FRONT OF THEM, WHICH ARE CONSIDERED A NORMAL LAW OR AS AN AID FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF LAW IN CONSIDERING SUBSEQUENT CASES WITH SIMILAR CONDITIONS. ACTS OF THE LAWYERS WHO SUPPORT THEIR CAUSE FAVORED BY FOCUSING ON THEIR CUSTOMERS AND ALSO AFFECT THE DECISION OF THE JUDGES. THE LAW DEVELOPED BY JUDGES THROUGH DECISIONS. STARE DECISIS DOCTRINE (HIGHER COURTS BIND LOWER COURT DECISION).

Equity ITS MAIN FEATURES WERE FAIRNESS, FLEXIBILITY, ADDITIONAL FUNDS. NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR EQUITY LAW USUAL. THE COMMON LAW COURTS OFTEN PRODUCE A SATISFACTORY OUTCOME AND NO TURNS NECESSARY TO EQUITY. THUS, SHAREHOLDERS ‘EQUITY’ IN “GLOSS ON THE COMMON LAW,” NOT DEPUTY WAS. MODERN EQUITY IS LIMITED BY SUBSTANTIAL AND PROCEDURAL RULES. FILL IN THE GAPS IN THE LEGAL SYSTEM FROM IT. Religion RELIGION IS A COLLECTION OF CULTURAL SYSTEMS, BELIEF SYSTEMS, AND WORLDVIEWS THAT AFFECT HUMANITY SPIRITUALITY AND, SOMETIMES, TO MORAL VALUES.

MANY RELIGIONS HAVE NARRATIVES, SYMBOLS, GIVING SACRED TRADITIONS AND HISTORY INTENDED MEANING TO LIFE OR TO EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF LIFE OR THE UNIVERSE. THEY TEND TO HAVE MORALITY, ETHICS, RELIGIOUS LAWS OR A PREFERRED LIFESTYLE FROM THEIR IDEAS ABOUT THE COSMOS AND HUMAN NATURE. Customs 2 LAW & CONTRACT CUSTOMS IS AN AUTHORITY OR AGENCY IN A COUNTRY RESPONSIBLE FOR COLLECTING AND CONSERVATION DUTIES AND FOR CONTROLLING THE FLOW OF GOODS INCLUDING ANIMALS, TRANSPORTATION, PERSONAL THE EFFECTS AND HAZARDOUS ITEMS IN AND OUT OF THE COUNTRY.

DEPENDING ON LOCAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS, THE IMPORT OR EXPORT OF SOME GOODS MAY BE RESTRICTED OR PROHIBITED, AND CUSTOMS AGENCY ENFORCES THESE RULES. Public international law INTERNATIONAL LAW HAS INCREASED IN USE AND IMPORTANCE SIGNIFICANTLY OVER THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, DUE TO THE INCREASE IN WORLD TRADE, ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON A GLOBAL SCALE, AWARENESS OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, RAPID AND LARGE INCREASES IN INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC AND PROSPERITY IN GLOBAL COMMUNICATION. Opinion of the jurists/writers IN SRI LANKA JUDGES USE SOME OPINION OF THE JURIST WHICH IS RECORDED IN THE LAW TEXT. 2 LAW & CONTRACT Task 4 Structure of the English Court System THE CHART ABOVE SHOWS A SIMPLIFIED VERSION OF THE ENGLISH COURT SYSTEM.

THE APPELLATE COMMITTEE OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS WAS THE FINAL COURT OF APPEAL FOR CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CASES FROM ENGLAND AND WALES UNTIL OCTOBER 2009, WHEN THE SUPREME COURT REPLACED IT AS THE HIGHEST COURT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. THE COURT OF APPEAL IN BOTH ITS CIVIL AND CRIMINAL DIVISIONS HAS ONLY APPELLATE JURISDICTION, WHILE THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE AND THE CROWN COURT HAVE BOTH APPELLATE AND ORIGINAL JURISDICTION. THEY WILL HEAR ON ORIGINAL JURISDICTION CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CASES CONSIDERED TOO SERIOUS TO BE HEARD BY EITHER THE MAGISTRATE’S COURTS (CRIMINAL) OR THE COUNTY COURTS (CIVIL).

THE ENGLISH LEGAL PROCESS BY TERENCE INGMAN, 13TH ED. (KD7111 . I53 2011) PROVIDES A DETAILED DISCUSSION OF THE ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURE OF THE COURTS. MAIN CATEGORIES IN UK (ENGLISH) COURT SYSTEM ?MAGISTRATE COURT ?JURISDICTION OF MAGISTRATE COURTS ?CROWN COURT 2 LAW & CONTRACT ?JURISDICTION OF CROWN COURT ?COURT OF APPEAL ?CIVIL DIVISION ?CRIMINAL DIVISION ?HOUSE OF LORDS/SUPREME COURTS ?COUNTRY COURTS ?JURISDICTION OF COUNTRY COURTS ?HIGH COURTS ?QUEEN’S BENCH DIVISION ?FAMILY DIVISION ?

CHANCERY DIVISION Magistrate court MAGISTRATE IN SOME STATES DISTRICT COURT OF SOME KIND, THE LESS CRIME TREATED DISHES, AND TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS, AS WELL AS CONDUCTING PRELIMINARY CHARGES THE DEFENDANT CRIME TO DECIDE WHETHER TO SEND THE EVENT OF THE ACCUSED TO A HIGHER COURT FOR TRIAL. JUSTICE OF THE PEACE COURTS ONLY DEAL WITH CRIMINAL CASES RATHER THAN THE DISTRICT COURTS, WHICH ARE ALSO RESPONSIBLE SOME CIVIL MATTERS. Jurisdiction of magistrate courts THE DISTRICT COURT’S JURISDICTION IS VERY BROAD, IN CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CASES, THE COURT READ AND INTERESTING HISTORY.

JUDGES AND PROSECUTORS ARE ENTRUSTED WITH THE TASK REGULATE MANY ASPECTS OF SOCIAL LIFE, THROUGH THE MAINTENANCE OF PEACE (HENCE THE ALTERNATIVE TERM FOR JUDGE – A JUDGE OR JP) TO DEAL WITH THE BREAK THROUGH THE CRIMINAL LAW. THE CIVIL JURISDICTION OF THE DISTRICT COURT (DC) COVERS CASES AND RELATED FAMILY, LICENSING, SOME DEBT COLLECTING AND DIVERSITY OF JOBS MAINLY IN RELATION TO THE CHILDREN. Crown court THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF JUDGES WHO MAY SIT IN THIS COURT, A HIGH COURT JUDGE, CIRCUIT JUDGE AND JUDGES CALLED PART-TIME RECORDER.

2 LAW & CONTRACT COURT IN ENGLAND AND WALES, WHICH IS PART OF THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR MATTERS BEFORE THE EXERCISES BELONGS QUARTER SESSIONS AND CRIMINAL MATTERS BEFORE THE COURTS OF ASSIZE Jurisdiction of crown court THE CROWN COURT DEALS WITH THE MOST SERIOUS CRIMES SUCH AS MURDER, TREASON, ROBBE ETC. HE HAS A COURT OF APPEAL, APPEALS BY THE ACCUSED ON THE LAW, FACT AND SENT BY THE DISTRICT COURT. Court of appeal IT HAS TWO DIVISIONS, THE CIVIL AND CRIMINAL DIVISION.

A BRANCH OF THE SUPREME COURT OF JUDICATURE THAT HEARS APPEALS FROM THE HIGH COURT IN BOTH CRIMINAL AND CIVIL MATTERS AND FROM THE COUNTY AND CROWN COURTS. Civil division IF YOU HAVE HEARD THE CASE IN THE DISTRICT COURT OR THE HIGH COURT FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF JUDGES AND RESOLUTION CAN APPLY TO THE COURT OF APPEAL CIVIL DIVISION. NEED PERMISSION TO APPEAL NEARLY ALL TYPES OF CRIMES AND APPLY FOR A LICENSE IN MOST CASES, APPEALS, THE JUDGE, WHOSE JOB IT IS THAT YOU ARE LOOKING TO GET TO APPEAL. Criminal division THE TRIAL CHAMBER, THE APPEALS FROM CROWN COURT HEARD. THE COURT OF APPEAL IS THE HIGHEST COURT IN THE HIGHER COURTS, AND HIGH COURT AND CROWN COURT.

House of lords/supreme courts THE PROCEDURE FOLLOWED IN THE COMMONS IS REPEATED IN THE LORDS. THE HOUSE OF LORD IS HEADED BY THE LORD CHANCELLOR AND THE JUDGE OF THE HOUSE OF LORD IS CALLED LORDS OF APPEAL IN ORDINARY. 2 LAW & CONTRACT Country courts A DISTRICT COURT OR COURTS OF JURISDICTION FOR ONE OR MORE COUNTIES BASED ON ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS WITHIN A COUNTRY, NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH THE MEDIEVAL SYSTEM DISTRICT COURTS BY THE HIGH SHERIFF OF EACH COUNTY INSTEAD.

Jurisdiction of country courts CAN HEAR CIVIL MATTERS SUBJECT TO THE MOST MONEY. THE CONTRACT WILL HEAR CIVIL CASES OR TORT, LAND DISPUTES, FAMILY DISPUTES AND DISPUTES BASED ON EQUITY FOR THE CASE TO COUNTY COURTS OF THE VALUE MUST BE WITHIN THE LIMITS OF THE CASE COUNTY COURT. High courts THIS IS DIVIDED INTO THREE SECTIONS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE PURPOSES, QUEEN’S BENCH DIVISION, THE FAMILY DIVISION, AND CHANCERY DIVISION.

THE TERM HIGH COURT USUALLY REFERS TO THE SUPREME COURT OF THE COUNTRY OR STATE. IN SOME COUNTRIES, THE HIGHEST COURT. Queen’s Bench division QUEEN’S BENCH DIVISION IS ONE OF THREE DIVISIONS OF THE HIGH COURT, ALONG WITH THE CHANCERY DIVISION AND THE FAMILY DIVISION. LORD JUSTICE JUDGE IS PRESIDENT OF THE BANK OF THE QUEEN DIVISION AND HIGH COURT JUDGES AND MASTERS ARE ASSIGNED. Family division HE SPECIALIZES IN FAMILY LAW MATTERS, INCLUDING DIVORCE CASES AND DEFENSE QUESTIONS ABOUT SIDE DIVORCE, SUCH AS MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS, PURCHASE ORDERS, DISTRIBUTION OF PROPERTY, VISITS, ETC.

Chancery division 2 LAW & CONTRACT CHANCERY DIVISION OF THE HIGH COURT COMMITTED BUILDING MANY SPECIES, ESPECIALLY BUSINESS AND PROPERTY DISPUTES, INCLUDING SOME WORK AS SPECIALIST FIRMS, COMPETITION, INSOLVENCY AND PATENTS AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Sri Lanka court system THE STRUCTURE OF THE COURT INCLUDING THE SUPREME COURT, COURT OF APPEAL, HIGH COURTS, DISTRICT COURTS, DISTRICT COURTS, MUNICIPAL COURTS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PLACES. IN ADDITION, MANY DISHES, ETC. ?SUPREME COURTS ?COURT OF APPEAL ?HIGH COURTS ?DISTRICT COURTS ?MAGISTRATE’S COURTS ?MUNICIPAL COURTS ?

PRIMARY COURTS Supreme courts THE SUPREME COURT IS THE HIGHEST AUTHORITY AND FINAL RECORDING, AND CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LATTER EXERTS APPELLATE JURISDICTION. VICTIMS WHO DO NOT AGREE WITH THE DECISION OF THE ORIGINAL COURT, WHETHER CIVIL, CRIMINAL, JUDICIAL OR APPEAL MAY, TO TAKE THE CASE TO THE SUPREME COURT, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE COURT APPEAL, OR SPECIAL PERMISSION BY THE SUPREME COURT. HOWEVER, THE SUPREME COURT ONLY AGREED TO CONSIDER CASES WHERE A SUBSTANTIAL QUESTION OF LAW. 2 LAW & CONTRACT THE SUPREME COURT CONSISTS OF CHIEF JUSTICE PUT TOGETHER AND NOT LESS THAN SIX NOR MORE THAN TEN, OTHER JUDGES.

Court of appeal THE COURT OF APPEAL IS THE FIRST APPELLATE COURT FOR DECISIONS OF ALL MEALS AND SOME ORIGINAL TRIBUNAL. THE COURT OF APPEAL IS THE PRESIDENT OF THE COURT INCLUDES, AND NOT LESS THAN SIX AND NOT MORE THAN ELEVEN OTHER JUDGES. THERE ARE MANY CASES IN THE COURT OF APPEAL CHAIRED OVERBUY BE SINGLE JUDGE. High courts EXPERIMENTS AT THE HIGH COURT IN THE STATE (SRI LANKA) WILL BE MADE BY THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, DEPARTMENT. CHASING THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL ON BEHALF OF THE STATE. MURDER TRIALS AND VARIOUS CRIMES AGAINST THE STATE ON TRIAL IN THE HIGH COURT; OTHER CRIMINAL CRIMES COURT. THE HIGH COURT TRIED MAGISTRATE SHALL CONSIST OF NOT LESS THAN TEN AND NOT MORE THAN FORTY JUDGES.

THE COURT SITS IN 16 PROVINCES OF THE COUNTRY (16 HIGH COURTS). District Courts COURTS IN THE DISTRICT COURTS OF FIRST INSTANCE FOR CIVIL CASES. DISTRICT COURTS JURISDICTION OVER ALL CIVIL CASES NOT SPECIFICALLY ALLOCATED TO THE PRIMARY COURT OR DISTRICT COURT. SRI LANKAN AREAS 54J UDICIAL. EACH DISTRICT COURT IS A COURT OF RECORD AND IS VESTED WITH UNLIMITED ORIGINAL JURISDICTION IN ALL CIVIL, REVENUE, TRUST, INSOLVENCY AND ISSUES TESTAMENT, OTHER ISSUES THAT ARE NOT ASSIGNED TO ANY OTHER COURT OF LAW. Magistrate’s Courts EACH DEPARTMENT’S DISTRICT COURT, AND THERE ARE 74 SECTIONS COURT IN SRI LANKA.

ALL COURT JUDGE BEING TRANSFERRED WITH ORIGINAL JURISDICTION OVER 2 LAW & CONTRACT CRIMINAL CASES OFFENSES. IN CRIMINAL LAW, THE DISTRICT COURTS AND THE SUPREME COURT, THE COURTS ONLY WITH PRIMARY JURISDICTION. RELEVANT AREAS OF THESE DISHES ARE DETAILED IN BEHAVIOR CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. THESE COURTS OF APPEALS MAY INITIALLY BE MADE TO THE COURT OF APPEAL AND EXERTS SPECIFIC CIRCUMSTANCES TO THE SUPREME COURT, THE FINAL COURT OF APPEAL. Municipal Courts THE DISTRICT COURT IS A COURT WHOSE JURISDICTION IS LIMITED TO A PARTICULAR MUNICIPALITY, THE COUNTY, BOROUGH OR CITY. DISTRICT COURTS ONLY THROUGH.

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