Civil war Summary

The civil war is a war between factions or regions of the same country. The American civil war is the war in the United States between the Union and the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865, it is also called War Between the States. The American Civil War is a war fought between the United State of America and Southern Slaves states during 1861-1865, which was newly formed in the United States of America.   The war began due to the lack of compromise between the Northern States (Free states) and Southern States (Slave states), (Bruce Catton, 2004).

This war fought under the supervision of Jefferson Davis. There was a difference of opinion between the south and the north but the main crust area is the slavery which led to the civil war and where the north won.  All the Free states are included in Union and also five slaveholding Border States, which were led by Republican Party along with Abraham Lincoln.  The object of the Republicans was not to expand the slavery into the United State territories. Before taking office by the Lincoln, the seven Southern states already declared their secession from the Union after their victory in the presidential election of 1860.  As a rebellion the Union did not accept the secession.

On 12th April 1861 conflict arose between them, as a result the Confederate forces attached at Fort Sumter in South Carolina on the installation of U.S. Military.  Where as four more Southern states proclaimed their secession due to collusion of large volunteer army gathered by Lincoln. More than two million Northern men, one out of five took up arms and participated in rebellion. (Ronald S. Coddington, 2004)

 In the first year of War, a naval blockade was established by the Union and they also controlled on the Border States and also established armies across the state. Numerous casualties took place in the battle of Shiloh and Antietam in the year 1862 first time in the history of U.S. military. In the south of America slavery suppressed by the Lincoln and declared liberation, which was the main objective of the war.


The United States of America was governed by the articles of confederation. This brought strong center and week states. There are conflicts between the states in various issues and they were divided as northern states and southern states (American Civil War: Introduction). The causes of the civil war were in the form of political, religious, economic, religious aspects.

The major causes are:

Slavery and Control of the Government,Two Regions on Separate PathsSlavery in the TerritoriesBleeding KansasStates’ RightsAbolitionism ( Kennedy Hickman)There was balance among the number of states on the slave states and Free states. It was finally disturbed in 1850. The two regions north and south were on different paths. South supports plantations and slavery where as north supports industrialization and abolition of slavery.

The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 further heightened tensions between North and south. Abolitionist movement in the 1820s and 1830s was intensified and stood as the major cause of civil war.

Slavery was one of the major differences between south and north. Slavery brought the sectionalism and this lead to the civil war. (Curt Lader, 1999).Agitation was arising for anti-slavery in the South and unavoidable debates were going in the North. In this juncture Lincoln played a significant role in order to achieve success for the establishment liberty from slavery.

Further he expressed his desire about the detention of slavery; it should not be spread in the newly state, but most of the political battle highlighted on the expansion of slavery into the newly created territories, which took place in the reign of 1850.  With the enhancement of Southern movement towards secession all organized territories strengthened to become liberal states.

There was a fear of losing control to the Southern state federal to antislavery forces. There was a fright to Southern state for losing the control over the federal government to antislavery forces. Conversely there was a threat to Northern that slave power dominating the government due to disagreement on the ethnical issue of slavery.

Thomas Jefferson ideas influenced to North and South.  Southerners revealed Jefferson’s ideas of states rights and the right of revolution mentioned in Kentucky, Virginia and Declaration of Independence respectively.  Northerners highlighted the equality of men by Jefferson’s declaration from the beginning.  Lincoln also mentioned it.

The regional leaders were frighten that Abraham Lincoln would prevent the widening of slavery.  According to Southerners slavery may be abolish by Northerner or Lincoln so they decided to secede. They were facing a challenge of becoming a minority in both the Electoral College and the Senate when compared to the Northerners.

This led to the secession first of the Deep South states which were affected by the slavery much that followed the other four states after the battle of Fort Sumter apart from the call for providing of the troops for retaking the forts and suppression of the rebellion, made by Lincoln for the remaining states. But it was refused by the Upper South States, as it was considered as an invasion by them to send troops against their neighbors.

Egocentric sectionalism is also one of the main causes of civil war. (Kenneth Stampp, 1992).


Slavery in the United States first started in Virginia in 1619.The degree of support for the secession was correlated strongly with the plantations of the region, as the more concentration of plantation was seen in the states of the Deep South and they secede first. Less number of plantations was present in upper South States, which were not seceded until the crisis of the Fort Sumter.

Border States still lacked in plantations and so never gone secession. About 36.7 % southern whites owned slaves in the lower south whereas 25.3% in the upper south and in the border states about 15.9%. 95% of the Blacks that comprised about one third of the population lived in the south in contrast to the 1% of their population in the North. So the there were greater fears among the south of the emancipation in comparison to the north.


About 150 years have been passed since the formation of the Republican civil rights. The Republican Party was found in a small Midwest town with a remarkable history. By some of the persons, The Republican Party is regarded as the most effective political organization of the world history that advanced in the cause of freedom.

Abraham Lincoln already stated the mission of the party clearly as lifting of the artificial weights from all shoulders, and also clearing the paths of laudable pursuit for all. It is believed that even now, the spirit is still alive of the Republican Party exactly in the same manner as it was during its foundation about the free minds, free expression, free markets, and also unlimited opportunity.

On the 150th anniversary in 2005, about four noteworthy accomplishments of the Republican Party were discussed pertaining to the rights and freedoms of individual.

Foremost was the ending of the slavery in the U.S., then extension of the right to vote relating to all the backgrounds irrespective of their sex, creed or race, role as a leader of the party in steering the modern era of the civil rights, and finally establishment of the American policy of peace by force resulting in the freedom of millions of people throughout the world from slavery, along with the democracy, women’s rights, and minority rights in the former Soviet territory, across the central and eastern Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

Beginning from the victory of President Lincoln in the civil war to the freedom of Afghanistan and Iraq under the president Bush, the policies of the Party were responsible fro freeing a large portion of the world from slavery.

The party was formed against the Democrats’ pro-slavery policies for protecting the Americans, on March 20, 1854; the drafted plans were taken on which resulted in the coming together of the organizations of the Republican Party through the Northern and Western regions of the U.S. Astonishingly in the1860 election, all the governors of northern states in the United States were Republicans, which was exceptional with respect to the progress of the party within a few years.

Even though much will be said about the Civil War’s Military histories but the political aspects are dealt with little attention. Presently it is said that the declaration of the freedom by the Lincoln was an individual act, which was not true and considered as a political act according to the Republicans. The Republicans who were in majority has passed the Confiscation Act at that time that declared freedom to the rebel slaves. Republicans also voted unanimously for the 13th Amendment to the Constitution that puts an end to slavery. (Speech by Rep. Christopher Cox)


 There were debates about the possibility of the result of the war, and it is believed by a number of intellectuals that an insurmountable gain was taken over by the Union relating to the population and industries over the Confederacies. It is also an issue of arrogance that the actions of the confederates could only cause delay in their defeat. The confederacy by outlasting Lincoln wanted independence, but in 1864 elections, he defeated McClellan eliminating the hopes of the south.

Lincoln also succeeded in getting support from some of the Border States along with liberated slaves and the countries like France and Britain. Some military leaders like Grant and Sherman were also founded by him who were capable of pressing the statistical advantage of the Union over the confederate armies in the battlefield. They won the war ending any hope of the south after the late 1864.

In contrast, it was also argued by persons like James Mc Pherson that the victory of the north was possible due to its richness in resources and the population. The need of the confederates was to fight only a defensive war in comparison to the North’s needs of winning. Apart from that the emancipation proclamation by the president Abraham Lincoln was an example of the president’s war powers effectively.

The North’s great-industrialized economy helped in the arms ammunitions production apart from the finances and transportation. The gap between the Union and the Confederates grew during the war weakening the economy of the confederates.

in 1861 The population of the Union was 22 million that was huge when compared to that of the South 9 million including more than 3.5 million slaves. With the control of union increasing over the southern region, disproportion also increased. This led to the blockage of the entire coastline of the south as well as their river systems were taken into control by the union. Transportation was easier in the northern areas whereas difficulties were faced by the troops in moving in the south due to lack of facilities.

The failure of Davis in maintaining of the productive relationships damaged his ability of withdrawing the regional resources with the governors of the states like Georgia. The emancipation proclamation also helped in joining the union army to the freed slaves. Union army was also supported by some of the European immigrants.


 Renouncement of the secession and elimination of all the forms of slavery were the two major goals of the war, but after the war there was some disagreement among the northern leaders. Reconstruction, which was already begun in the earlier stages of the war ended in the year 1877 which led to the in the three amendments of the “Civil War” to the constitution the XIII, dealing with the abolishment of slavery, the XIV with extent ion of federal legal protections to citizens irrespective of race, and the XV, abolished the racial restrictions on voting.


By the emancipation proclamation all the slaves in the confederacy were freed. By the thirteenth amendment, by the state action effective elimination of the slavery took place in the Border States and the states that were controlled by the union in the south. Almost 970,000 people died, out of which 620,000 were soldiers, but in 1865 around 4 million black slaves got freedom.


The civil war is lesson to the nations which are still not in accordance with the basic human rights. It had shown the world that if the basic human rights are not provided for an individual or a section of society they will first protest and then they will revolt. It is a best example where people with cause will try to get remedy for that. Here with the civil war the Americans set an example for the world that humanity is the highest priority than any other thing in this world.

References:1. Kennedy Hickman, American Civil War: Causes, The Approaching Storm, Civil War: Introduction, civil war, Bruce Catton, Mariner Book, 2004.4.  Ronald S. Coddington, Faces of the Civil War: An Album of Union Soldiers and Their Stories, JHU press, 2004.5. Curt Lader, (1999), Painless American History, Barron’s Educational Series.

Kenneth Stampp, (January 15, 1992), The Causes of the Civil War: Revised Edition (Touchstone) (Paperback), 256 pages, Publisher: Touchstone; 3 Revised edition.Speech by Rep. Christopher Cox, Honoring 150 Years of Republican Civil Rights Achievements,