Special thanks and gratitude is given to ---- who helped me with his valuable guidance. I am also thankful the numerous law courts and drug court practitioners who helped during this study and responded to the survey in a timely manner to make this study a success.. My thanks will also be extended to my family including Dad, Mom and -----, my youngest brother for their kind and invaluable support during the whole project.
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE
This paper offers insight on the engineering management systems that link the initiation and completion of civil projects. These engineering management systems that are described in this paper are quality management, human resource management, financial and budgetary control, health and safety control management and other significant recommendations that may prove worthwhile for companies undertaking civil constriction and engineering projects. These aspects are closely related to project management guidelines for the various phases involved in civil engineering projects from project commencement through forecast, planning, design, construction, commissioning, and closeout.
The project managers require practical tools for efficiently managing the project schedules, so that the project is efficiently contracted for, finished on time and contained by the specified budget, and comply with all laid down project specifications. A civil engineering project is composed of many interconnected job activities controlled by a detailed project compass, financial plan, and agenda to distribute assets required to accomplish the premeditated goals of the project.
Characteristics of Projects
In general, all the projects in the industry are clearly defined by three factors - scope, budget, and schedule. There are several phases between the first phase and completion of civil construction projects which have been clearly specified above.
Success of any industrial project may be defined as complete or partial. In case of a complete success, it may be defined as the situation where all the involved risk holders are content with the project results. According to other definitions of Project Success, the four limitations involved in a Project – Time, cost, quality and business requirements have been adequately attended to the agreement of the stake holders.
In financial terms, the success of a project denotes a positive Return on Investment, as a result of which the gains from the product surpass the cost of the project. A well planned strategy for the project life cycle plays a very important part in the success of the project. Regular tracking of the project outcome and constantly marking the project status, value addition, analysis, and revalidation of the project components are parts of building a successful plan for the project.
In case of Project Failure, a negative ROI, rising cost of production, a number of quality issues that cannot be solved even after attempting extension, a meager design which cannot stand any extra developmental issues and no deliverance of the desired results / benefits are all which signify a Project failure. Insufficient allocation and provision of funds for resource and cost planning can cause large hindrances to the team management. This situation is called as cost blowing out for the project. Irresponsible cash flows and unlimited spending causes imbalances during the execution phase. A project also fails if the quality during progress is too low for the stakeholders to uphold faith in the final outcome and cancel the deal.
QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONTROL
The issue of quality control for civil engineering management systems is related to the tasks of measuring, test performances, inspection of certain processes or products involved so as to make sure the required specifications are met. Quality control also includes the control of the quality of work being performed. The products or processes specified above may be the civil drawings of the project, building specifications, or constructed civil items. Quality Assurance requires the development of the needs of all the contractors involved in planning, processing and completion of the civil engineering project so that the quality is assured as per guidelines.
The Quality requirements for the project should be clearly addressed in the pre-specified Quality management plan for the civil engineering project. Many civil construction companies hire consultants for the purpose. Once a civil engineering management plan has been identified, the Quality assurance and Quality control plan is designed by the consultants. The QA/ QC plan gives answers to queries regarding responsibility allotment. The quality plan intended for a civil engineering project need to be closely followed at the initiation of every new project phase.
The decisions about the quality control should be legally formalized within the contract documents and be made available to all the civil construction contactors involved in the project, so that the design and quality control requirements are administered closely.
The design of the civil structures involved is another important part of quality control administration. The responsibility of the civil design lies completely on the design team of the civil engineering project. The design team makes available a QC plan before the activities are started on the site which identifies how the quality will be achieved. The quality management plan illustrates the measures that are to be taken up regarding any design alterations, which also includes the sign-off and documentation process.
During the construction phase of a civil engineering project, the following scopes can be covered to monitor the quality management plan. evaluation of contract papers to authenticate that quality facets have been well thought-out inspection of construction for observance to quality requirements Inspections related to the In-process and receiving points Independent audit carried by external agencies on the compliance of quality management
In order to avoid any kind of clash of interests involving the civil engineering project progress and its quality management, the independent audit agency should also report outside the authority scope of the Project manager. Also, the quality of the deliverables for the civil engineering project should be monitored during every phase by the audit agency and the contractor so that they meet the desired quality criteria.
The document control in a civil engineering management system is related to the arrangement of management scope control. The document control activity makes sure that the various important documents like civil engineering drawings, contract agreements, baseline documentations, kick off meeting discussions, project design and schedule documents are maintained, assessed and revised in a proper manner throughout the entire period of the civil engineering project to maintain the required standard of security, integrity, quality, and currency.
In other words, Document control is the administration and supervision of records that arise during the construction phase of a civil engineering project. More over, DC is the management of the records related to the design changes, RFIs, and plan submittals which are required to handle efficient reporting of the construction phase progress. This includes:
The Quality Assurance and Quality control reports at every milestone which is covered during the various phases. The records that include the daily site activities, main events, weather, equipment delivery and handling, labor and other significant daily site communications. The daily report of the contractor assessment work, and other activities that are carried out by the civil construction site. Various instructions, unacceptable circumstances, setbacks encountered, manpower and equipment, or other problems.
Also, Document control is regarding the weekly Construction Report of all categories, business meetings, discussions with the contractors, external agreements made, significant notes for redelivery, procurement of items, employment conditions, labor wages, weather or other causes of possible delays, and other matters that have a bearing on the history of the job. Safety management and accident reports.
The Document control helps the project team to evaluate the changes made with time in the designs, plan and quality and further guarantee that the quality is maintained as the changes are implemented. It is important that the baseline documents are reserved with the current data / information in observance with the project’s configuration management and document control procedures.
The document control for a civil engineering project management system consists of the distribution, storing, and recovery of complete records of the project in mainly two forms - hard copy and electronic form. At the same time, document control also makes note of the various two way correspondence notes, between the client and the contractor at any point. These records can be later used by the management database to index the record file of the project. This later on helps with the timely retrieval of the documents if required by the project team.
The document control activity keeps track of the historical and active files regarding the status of the project, so that a fast and complete audit can be made. Document control system should make available suitable access to records and formulate such that the records are protected and the apt level of privacy is preserved. The document control system should be managed in such a way to conform to the managerial, official, and chronological documentation necessities and make available a review track and documentation of project activities.
Otherwise an efficient document control during the project can help to establish a library of project technical documents, principles, baseline credentials, business regulations and values, and other universal data significant to the completion of the project. Also at times, an efficient document control can extend to a record storage system for future project which can provide critical information to other teams which can help them avoid stressful circumstances and provide failure protection.