Family theory has been found to be important in family nursing for it centers on psychoanalysis through oral interaction between family members when dealing with problems on making decisions (Poster, 1980, p. 92). This theory is also used to study children who are labeled as mentally retarded. It allows nurses to understand and analyze the linguistic operations of a child’s family as he demonstrates his/her attitudes through the spoken language, the child’s problems, whether there is Electra/ Oedipus complex, and even health symptoms (Poster, 1980, p. 93).
In addition, it provides FPNs effective approaches in dealing with health problems, issues, and adversities of the family members. FPNs also help families promote of improve spirituality within the family in order to encourage the practice of values, as well as to enhance their lifestyle, flexibility, resources, cooperation, ability to solve problems, and close family ties through open communication even in the midst of adversities or illnesses.
Family theory views FNPs as agents of change, providers of quality health care, resource providers, and facilitators in assisting the family to manage their strengths in producing good and desirable outcomes. Family systems theory Wright and Leahey (1984, p. 152) introduced the application of family systems theory to nursing practice, which serve as the framework in describing the evolution of the incestuous family.
Accordingly, this theory asserts that intrafamilial abuse results from various aspects of a dysfunctional system within the family such as blurred boundaries, enmeshment, ambiguous role relationships, faulty alliances, patriarchal structure, and isolation. Therefore, nursing interventions using this approach can be useful in overcoming some if not all of the related problems (Whyte, 1997, p. 155). Systems theory is also useful in pediatric psychology more than in chronic physical disorders (Roberts, & Wallander, 1992, p.11).
Family process theory Quality care and intensive care depend on family involvement. Therefore, it is important that nurses should have appropriate education and adequate knowledge and understanding of family processes in nursing intervention to prevent risks (Whyte, 1997, p. 148). Pediatric psychology recognizes family as an important context in practice and research. Family processes are used in psychological adjustment of the child and family and in interventions of physical disorders (Roberts & Wallander, 1992, p. 5).
Family Stress Theory Like Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response (FAAR) models, family stress theory plays significant role in pediatric psychology when problems are viewed in terms of stress. Nurses can incorporate family systems when attempting to maintain balanced functioning by meeting, decreasing, or changing the meaning of the demands of family members and using their capabilities to overcome problems of solve issues (Roberts & Wallander, 1992, p. 12). Role theory
Role theory conceptualizes family members and considers their behavior with the interaction within the family to overcome problems like the impact of illness on family functioning, roles or greater responsibilities at home, gender roles, or decisions. This theory helps family nurse practitioners to identify the problems that affect family roles and their appropriate interventions or measures in order help the family members balance their time, understand the nature of their problems and do something to overcome or prevent them from becoming worse (Roberts & Wallander, 1992, p. 13).