Will v. Hallock Case Brief

Why is the case important?

The Hallocks’ computer software was destroyed by Government agents during an investigation, and was subsequently bared from bringing suit against the Government and the agents for these torts.

Facts of the case

U.S. Customs Service agents investigating a child pornography website raided Susan and Richard Hallock’s residence and seized several computers. The Hallocks were cleared of any guilt, but the computers were damaged beyond repair. Susan Hallock originally sued the government under the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA), which waives the government’s sovereign immunity in certain cases. The District Court dismissed that case for lack of jurisdiction, because the FTCA’s waiver has an exception for claims arising from the detention of goods by customs. Hallock then sued Will and the other customs agents as individuals. The agents made a motion for dismissal under a provision of the FTCA that bars suits where a judgment on the claim has already been entered. The District Court denied the motion, accepting Hallock’s argument that the dismissal for lack of jurisdiction did not constitute a final judgment. Although the trial had not yet concluded, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals granted the agents’ appeal of the District Court’s ruling on the motion and affirmed the District Court, ruling that since Hallock had not properly brought a claim in the original suit, no judgment had been entered. The Circuit Court ruled that it had jurisdiction to hear the appeal under the collateral order doctrine, under which some decisions of lower courts other than final judgments can be appealed. The Supreme Court granted certiorari on the question of the motion to dismiss, but instructed the parties to argue the question of the Circuit Court’s authority to hear the appeal.


Whether refusal to apply the judgment bar of the Federal Tort Claims Act is open to a collateral appeal.



  • The Court of Appeals has the authority to review all final decisions of the district court.&nbsp
  • Also the Court of appeals has jurisdiction of a narrow class of decisions that are sufficiently important and collateral to the merits that they should nonetheless by treated as final, this is the collateral order doctrine. In this instance the court felt the Court of appeals erred in finding it had jurisdiction to hear this issue. The Collateral order doctrine can only be used if
  • the court conclusively determines the disputed question, they can resolve an important issue completely separate from the merits of the action, and that issue is effectively un-reviewable on appeal from a final judgment. This court refuses to broaden the scope of this doctrine. Doing so would destroy the finality in judgment rule.&nbsp
  • The judgment bar works much like a collateral estoppel defense. The court of appeals will not entertain a review of every defensive attempt to avoid litigation.”


    “Three conditions are required for collateral appeal: the order must [1] conclusively determine the disputed question, [2] resolve an important issue completely separate from the merits …, and [3] be effectively unreviewable on appeal from a final judgment.PAlthough the statutory judgment bar is arguably broader than traditional res judicata, it functions in much the same way, with both rules depending on a prior judgment as a condition precedent The concern behind both rules is a different one, of avoiding duplicative litigation, “”multiple suits on identical entitlements or obligations between the same parties.”” But this rule of respecting a prior judgment by giving a defense against relitigation has not been thought to protect values so great that only immediate appeal can effectively vindicate them. Absent particular reasons for discretionary appeal by leave of the trial court, a defense of claim preclusion is fairly subordinated to the general policy of deferring appellate review to the moment of final judgment.””

    • Case Brief: 2006
    • Petitioner: Richard Will et al.
    • Respondent: Susan Hallock et al.
    • Decided by: Roberts Court

    Citation: 546 US 345 (2006)
    Granted Jun 6, 2005
    Argued: Nov 28, 2005
    Decided: Jan 18, 2006