RESPONDENT: Martha Coakley, Attorney General for the state of Massachusetts
LOCATION: Planned Parenthood
DOCKET NO.: 12-1168
DECIDED BY: Roberts Court (2010-2016)
CITATION: 573 US (2014)
GRANTED: Jun 24, 2013
ARGUED: Jan 15, 2014
DECIDED: Jun 26, 2014
Ian H. Gershengorn -
Jennifer Grace Miller - on behalf of the respondents
Mark L Rienzi - on behalf of the petitioners
Facts of the case
In 2009, the Massachusetts state legislature created a 35-foot buffer zone around the entrances, exits, and driveways of abortion clinics. The petitioners, individuals who routinely engage in "pro-life counseling" outside of state abortion clinics, sued in federal district court and argued that the law violated the First Amendment protection of free speech. The district court held that, although the law placed a restriction on the time, place, and manner of speech, the law was constitutional because it was content-neutral and still left adequate, if not perfect, alternative means of communications. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit affirmed and held that the Supreme Court, in Hill v. Colorado had already affirmed a similar statute in Colorado that prohibited certain activities within 100 feet of abortion clinics.
1. Did the First Circuit err in upholding the Massachusetts law under the First Amendment, as applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment?
2. If the Supreme Court's ruling in Hill v. Colorado applies, should that ruling be limited or overruled?
Media for McCullen v. CoakleyAudio Transcription for Oral Argument - January 15, 2014 in McCullen v. Coakley
Audio Transcription for Opinion Announcement - June 26, 2014 in McCullen v. Coakley
I have the opinion of the Court in case 12-1168, McCullen v. Coakley.
During the 1980s and 1990s, Massachusetts experienced clashes between abortion opponents and advocates of abortion rights outside clinics where abortions were performed.
The Massachusetts' legislature responded in 2000 by enacting the Massachusetts' Reproductive Health Care Facilities Act.
That law made it a crime to knowingly approach within six feet of another person outside an abortion clinic without the other person's consent.
By 2007, some legislators and law enforcement officials had come to regard this ?no approach zones? as an inadequate solution.
So the legislature amended the Act to create fixed buffer zones around the entrances and driveways to abortion clinics.
The Act now makes it a crime to ?knowingly enter or remain on a public way or sidewalk adjacent to a Reproductive Health Care facility within a radius of 35 feet of any portion of such a clinic's entrance, exit or driveway.
The 35 foot buffer zones are marked with painted hearts and posted signs on sidewalks and streets adjacent to the clinics.
The Act exempts four groups of individuals from the ban on entering the buffer zones.
People entering or leaving the clinics, clinic employees or agents acting within the scope of their employment, certain emergency and other municipal agents acting within the scope of their employment and people passing by the clinics on their way to some other destination.
The Act carries forward a separate provision of the previous law, making it a crime to knowingly obstruct another person's access to a clinic.
Now, some of the individuals who stand outside Massachusetts' abortion clinics are fairly described as protesters who express their moral or religious opposition to abortion vocally, through signs and in some cases, more aggressive methods.
Eleanor McCullen and the other petitioners in this case take a different tact.
They attempt to engage women approaching the clinics in what is known as ?sidewalk counseling? which involves offering information about alternatives to abortion and help pursuing those options.
Petitioners considered essential to maintain a caring demeanor, calm tone of voice, direct eye contact during these exchanges.
The buffer zones have forced petitioners out of their previous positions outside the clinics.
Before the zones were instituted, some petitioners counseled arriving patients outside the entrance to a clinic in Boston while others distributed literature to patients as they drove in the driveways of clinics in Wister and Springfield.
Now, petitioners must stand a considerable distance away from the clinic's entrances and driveways, in some cases, even across the street.
Petitioners claim that as a result to the buffer zones, they have had many fewer conversations and distributed many fewer leaflets and their success rate in dissuading women from having abortions has sharply declined.
Petitioners sued Massachusetts' Attorney General Martha Coakley and other Commonwealth officials, alleging that the Act violates the First Amendment.
The District Court rejected their challenge and the Court of Appeals for the First Circuit affirmed, holding that the Act is a reasonable regulation of the time, place and manner of speech outside abortion clinics.
We disagree and hold that the Act violates the First Amendment.
By its very terms, the Act regulates access to public ways and sidewalks.
Our First Amendment cases have labeled such locations traditional public forum because of their historic role as sites for open discussion and debate.
Thus, even though the Act says nothing about speech on its face, there is no doubt that it is subject to First Amendment scrutiny.
We have held that the Government's ability to restrict speech in a traditional public forum is very limited.
The Government does, however, have leeway to impose reasonable restrictions on the time, place or manner of protected speech in a traditional public forum so long as those restrictions are not based on the content of the speech are narrowly tailored to serve a significant governmental interest and leave open ample alternative channels for communication.
Petitioners contend that the Act is content-based because it applies only outside abortion clinics as opposed to other kinds of facilities across the Commonwealth.
We have held that a law such as this one is content neutral so long as it is ?justified? without reference to the content of the regulated speech.