Introduction: The status of the African-American increased little after Reconstruction. Some blacks were starting to accept their situation but two African American leaders did not. W. E. B Dubois and Booker T. Washington saw that the situation of poverty and social inequality were bringing down their race in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. They came from completely different backgrounds, one rich and one a former slave, but they had the same purpose: they sought equality in the American society for African-Americans.
Washington was more for slow integration into society and working your way up where as Dubois wanted immediate equality, which he thought the blacks deserved. Despite their differences two speakers would help to change the situation for their fellow African Americans from 1877 to 1915. Booker T. Washington was stronger on living in the moment, and making good then, when he could. W. E. B. Du Bois, wanted to make sure the future was acceptful of blacks. Body Paragraph 1:
Topic sentence: Education within the white society was much more prominent than in the black society. -In 1890, 60% of the whites, 5-19 years old attended school and only 33% of the blacks did. – Between the years of 1890 and 1910, the illiteracy for blacks went from 60% of 9 year olds couldn’t read, to 32% Outside source: -Ever since the days of slavery, constraining black education was used as a method to quell black agency and fears of slave rebellions. This denial only intensified Black people’s desire for education.
-In higher education, several Black institutions were formed under the auspices of the Freedman’s Bureau and the American Missionary Association, to help create black clerics and provide a Christian education for the Black “heathens. ” Simultaneously, Southern black institutions, segregated schools that largely depended on white philanthropy to exist, focused on industrial education that would prepare blacks for subservient roles in society. These institutions were in most cases, academically inferior to white institutions. The first Black American student graduated from Bowdoin College in 1890.
Black students did not begin to enter predominately white schools in significant numbers until the 1960s. – The 1800s were a pivotal time for African American education in the country, with Pennsylvania a leader. The beginning of the century saw little to no schooling available to African Americans; it ended with the integration of public schools. Education for African Americans was not yet even remotely equal to that provided for whites, but for those who believed that education was fundamental to progress, free public education was nothing short of a major victory.
-Literacy test urged the blacks to become educated so they could vote. Body Paragraph 2: Topic sentence: Though Booker T. Washington was content, W. E. B. Du Bois was not. He wanted three things: the right to vote, civic equality, and the education of youth according to ability. -The Niagara Movement (a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter. ) -Only wants those three things for blacks Outside source: -10 percent rule.
The highest class of blacks should be able to live in harmony -Tried to make the future better -Wanted the black population to become more educated. -W. E. B. Du Bois, in his search for a solution to the American racial dilemma, voiced educational philosophies that provided an interesting opposite to those preached by his intellectual counterpart, Booker T. Washington. Du Bois’ educational background was very different from Washington’s Body Paragraph 3: Topic sentence: Booker T.
Washington was satisfied with America, for the country gave him freedom; however education was still important -Industrial education for the Negro is Booker T. Washington’s hobby -Does this mean that the Negro objects to industrial education? By no means Outside source: – Atlanta Address of 1895. Too many politicians and the public in general, he was seen as a popular spokesman for African-American citizens. -Washington contributed secretly and substantially to legal challenges against segregation and disfranchisement of blacks.
In his public role, he believed he could achieve more by skillful accommodation to the social realities of the age of segregation -The schools Washington supported were founded to produce teachers. However, graduates had often gone back to their largely impoverished rural southern communities only to find precious few schools and educational resources. To address those needs, Washington enlisted his philanthropic network of matching funds programs to stimulate construction of numerous rural public schools for black children in the South.
Together, these efforts eventually established and operated over 5,000 schools and supporting resources for the betterment of blacks throughout the South in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. -The local schools were a source of communal pride and were priceless to African-American families when poverty and segregation limited severely the life chances of the pupils. A major part of Washington’s legacy, the number of model rural schools increased with matching funds from the Rosenwald Fund into the 1930s.