Ap Human Geography Chapter 4 Study Guide

1. Boundary Types (Antecedent, Subsequent, etc. ) a. This concept is important because it shows the relationship between different regions, as well as colonized countries and their colonizers. The different boundary types either create more difficult ways of transportation/trade, or ease transportation/trade, etc. 2. Federal/Unitary/Confederate Governments b. The different types of government are important because they show how a country is being ruled.

It also hints at the type of culture; unitary governments tend to lead more homogenous states than federal, while confederate governments usually break up into several different states, like with Yugoslavia. 3. Supranationalism c. This is important because it is a method of decision making in a multi-national community. Supranationalist groups tie together countries or regions to make trade and money transference easier. (ex: EU) 4. State Shapes (Compact, Elongated, Prorupt, Fragmented, Perforated) d. The different shapes of states are important because each shape has certain benefits and disabilities, some more severe than others.

For example, elongated states, like Chile, have a harder time distributing services that are easy to cover in compact states like Poland. 5. Organic Theory e. This theory is important because it shows that a country is in a state of nature or in a relationship between it and an individual. It is the basis for most colonizing states, such as Great Britain or France, as a means of expanding territory and rule. 6. McKinder’s Heartland Theory f. Basis for Nazi takeover of Europe; stormed throughout other European countries in an attempt to control everyone. 7.

Spykman’s Rimland Theory g. Basis for NATO and CENTO, both organizations aimed at making sure Nazi Germany never got control of the rimland of Eurasia. It is presumed that by preventing this takeover, Nazis would not be able to extend their power any further. 8. Centripetal/Centrifugal h. Forces that pull a nation together (centripetal), or pull it apart (centrifugal); important because it describes either the large homogeneity or unity in a state and how it benefits it, or mass corruption/disagreement. 9. Nation-State, State/Nation, Stateless Nation i.

A Stateless Nation is important because it is a political organization for homogenous people in a sovereign state. When either the state of homogenous nation is taken out, problems tend to arise, often involving conflict over land, government and international recognition. (ex: Kurds) 10. Boundary Disputes j. Important because it shows the relationship between countries; their past may include already-fought wars on boundary placement, and now produces problems concerning labor and money, religion, and politics, etc. (ex: US-Mexico, China-Nepal, Pakistan-India).