Age of Enlightenment Analysis Paper

EnglishLife ,liberty, povertyself governmentnatral rightsopposite of hobbes2 tristesse on government


Baron de Montesquieu

FrenchBelieved England’s Gov’t was best.

On the Spirit of Laws

Separation of Powers by branch: executive power, legislative power, judicial power


FrenchMan is evilfreedom of speech

Wrote over 70 writingsVoice of the enlightmentFrench Revolution

Jean Jacques Rousseau

FrenchEqualityrestrictive rightssome goverments make unfair lawsSocial ContractDevelopment of the US governmentfrench revolution

Casare Beccaria

ItalianLaws were to preserve social order, not avenge crimesgov’t should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people

Against torture & cruel or usual punishmentsFor speedy trials punishment should fit crime abolished capital punishment

Mary Wollstonecraft

Britishbelieved women should have same rights as men

Advocate of Women’s rights

Scientific ThinkerCountryDiscovery / TheoryWritingsInfluence / Impact

Nicolaus Copernicus

Polishproposed that the planets instead revolved around the sun Astronomical Ideas and WritingsHe helped astronomers

Johannes Kepler

GermanOrbits are Elliptical in shape

“Kepler’sLaws of Planetary Motion”.proved mathematically that Copernicus’ideas were correct

Galileo Galilei

ItalianUsed telescope to study the heavens (1609)Observed that Jupiter had 4 moonsLaw of falling objects

Came into conflict with Church over hisworkStood trial at an inquisition in Romeunder threat of torture recanted his work.

Thomas BaconRene Descartes


Scietific Method

Isaac Newton

Englishphysical laws of motionTheories of gravity

Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy

all objects were affected by the same forces

Gabriel FahrenheitAnders Celsius



We now have a way to determine tempature

Robert Boyle

EnglandFather of modern Chemistry