Age of Enlightenment

English Life ,liberty, poverty self government natral rights opposite of hobbes 2 tristesse on government


Baron de Montesquieu

French Believed England’s Gov’t was best.

On the Spirit of Laws

Separation of Powers by branch: executive power, legislative power, judicial power


French Man is evil freedom of speech

Wrote over 70 writings Voice of the enlightment French Revolution

Jean Jacques Rousseau

French Equality restrictive rights some goverments make unfair laws Social Contract Development of the US government french revolution

Casare Beccaria

Italian Laws were to preserve social order, not avenge crimes gov’t should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people

Against torture & cruel or usual punishments For speedy trials punishment should fit crime abolished capital punishment

Mary Wollstonecraft

British believed women should have same rights as men

Advocate of Women's rights

Scientific Thinker Country Discovery / Theory Writings Influence / Impact

Nicolaus Copernicus

Polish proposed that the planets instead revolved around the sun Astronomical Ideas and Writings He helped astronomers

Johannes Kepler

German Orbits are Elliptical in shape

"Kepler'sLaws of Planetary Motion". proved mathematically that Copernicus’ ideas were correct

Galileo Galilei

Italian Used telescope to study the heavens (1609) Observed that Jupiter had 4 moons Law of falling objects

Came into conflict with Church over his work Stood trial at an inquisition in Rome under threat of torture recanted his work.

Thomas Bacon Rene Descartes

English Dutch

Scietific Method

Isaac Newton

English physical laws of motion Theories of gravity

Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy

all objects were affected by the same forces

Gabriel Fahrenheit Anders Celsius

Polish Sweeden


We now have a way to determine tempature

Robert Boyle

England Father of modern Chemistry