Organization/Firm Policies and Procedures

Organizations search for linkages to promote inter-organisational interactive learning and for outside partners and networks to provide complementary assets. These relationships help organizations to spread costs and risk, gain access to new research results, acquire key technology components of a new product or process, and share assets in manufacturing, marketing and distribution. As they develop new products and processes, organizations determine which activities they will undertake individually, in collaboration with other organizations, in collaboration with universities or research institutions, and with the support of government.

In time, the national systems cross boundaries becoming international. Of key importance is the "knowledge distribution power" of the system, or the capability to ensure timely access by innovators to the relevant stocks of knowledge. As we, students getting deeper into the era of globalizations and knowledge economy, a comprehensive curriculum and a world-class delivery system and educational infrastructure are significant to develop flexible and competent sub professionals.

To develop a professionally competent worker, curriculum content for a workforce preparation program must encompass the knowledge, skills and attitudinal aspects of the individual, apart from the technical competence portion. A professionally competent worker, employers say, is one who is a team player, respectful of others and has good communication skills. Therefore, graduates of any education and training program must be able to demonstrate professional competence beyond academic qualifications. 'Qualification' is what is written on paper while 'competence' is what is demonstrated by the worker at the workplace.

To this effect, students of workforce preparation program should be required to undergo several months of industrial training or other forms of industrial attachments during the course of study to develop workplace knowledge, skills and attitudes where part of the trainee evaluation is done by industry personnel. One should acquire knowledge in a particular discipline but realise that the future work environment will probably be multi-disciplinary (vs. pure specializations. ) This simply means that if an individual wants to apply the knowledge acquired, he or she must have an understanding of other people's disciplines as well.

As an example, when working as a team leader for a certain project like innovating a new product, a team leader must also have knowledge and understanding in the field of entrepreneurship development, marketing skills and also strategic management skills. Even as a student in MMU, we need to practice from what we learn from formal learning and also gaining knowledge from informal knowledge. Besides that, a culture of responsibility towards knowledge must be inculcated into their daily challenges of a knowledge worker.

An individual must constantly support their leaders, colleagues and peer groups with current and specialized knowledge by asking to whom am I accountable to for the knowledge I have. Secondly, identifying people who can provide critical and valuable knowledge to assist me in getting things done by asking who is accountable to me for the knowledge I need. And thirdly, developing a matrix to import knowledge from multiple sources by asking where the knowledge can be acquired. An individual should be able to think strategically. He or she must be able to stretch beyond the boundary of their preferred thinking mode to achieve desired goals.

An individual must also have multi-functional skills to apply knowledge. In the future work environment, he or she is not likely to know everything, and will probably have to work with other people from different disciplines. It is thus important to also have "soft" skills such as communication skills, and a high EQ (emotional quotient. ) These help to manage work positively. Basically there are three different related skills required for high-value outputs: ? Problem-solving skills-knowledge of the problems and how to put things together in unique ways to provide the right solutions (by turning knowledge into designs and instructions).

By providing the right solutions, this might help the firm to benefit from it. Thus specialization knowledge is very important in this kind of aspect. As an example, as a maintenance engineer at a oil rig, an individual must have solid knowledge towards what he or she is doing so that any error or problems can be solved instantly. Dealing with situations like that any error or problems can be a disaster; therefore problem solving skills are sought. ? Skill to help customers understand their needs and how those needs can best is met by customized products.

In contrast to selling and marketing standardized goods, selling and marketing customized products relies on having an intimate knowledge of a customer's business, where competitive advantage may lie and how it can be achieved. The key is to identify new problems and opportunities to which the customized product might be applicable. As an example, Dell computer is actually practicing this method of mass customization. They have actually done a research on the customers need and wants in the aspect of having a computer. With this firm foundation, they are able to mass customized while providing a high value to its customer.

? Skills needed to link problem-solvers and problem-identifiers. People in such roles must understand technologies and markets to see the potential for new products and get the right problem-solvers and problem-identifiers to execute projects. Managers must have such skills. They must able to utilize the firms' resource properly to achieve the organizational goals and to tackle with everyday problems. Having proper values and attitudes: This is probably the most important, as values drive people. The K-environment is fast changing. Thus, it is important to be agile and adaptable in your learning, and in the work environment.

Knowledge workers must place key emphasis on a habit of continuous learning by constantly pursuing the process of unlearning and relearning to exceed the needs of a fast changing economy. They can do this by adopting the philosophy of "Learning is about working and working is about Learning", and implementing real time action plan to translate learning into practice. In this, values about learning will play a role. In the K-environment, learning is for life. It doesn't stop with a diploma or degree. Procrastination among Students in Institutes of Higher Learning: Challenges for K-Economy

The word procrastination means task avoidance or delay with sin. Procrastination has been defined as "letting the low-priority tasks get in the way of high priority ones. It is also defined as avoiding doing a task which needs to be accomplished. For example, one would rather be spending time socializing with friends in favorite hangout places or relatives rather than working on an important work project or assignments that is due soon; or one would rather be watching an exciting movie at the cinema or television rather than sitting down at a desk for an upcoming quiz or test.

A procrastinator is someone who knows what he or she wants to do, is equipped to perform the task, is trying and planning to perform the task, but does not complete the task, or excessively delays performing the task. Normally, the procrastinator will work on less important obligation, rather than fulfilling the more important obligation, or he or she may use his or her time wastefully in some minor activity or pleasure. In most cases, procrastinators keep themselves ready to work, but end up avoiding the activity.

The literature has revealed several causes for procrastination. First, is poor time management and someone who procrastinates suggests he or she is unable to manage time wisely. It implies uncertainty of priorities, goals and objectives. There is also the feeling of overwhelm doing a certain task. Subsequently, one postpones doing academic assignments for a later date, while focusing on unproductive activities. The inability to concentrate or having low levels of conscientiousness in one's work is a second reason for procrastinating.

This difficulty may be due to distractions in the environment, such as noise, cluttered study desk or trying to do an assignment on a bed. A third factor for procrastinating is the fear and anxiety related to failure. A person in this category would spend more time worrying about forthcoming tests and projects rather than completing them. Negative belief about one's capability is another reason to procrastinate. Sixth, personal problem may hamper one's progress in completing a task. Seven, unrealistic expectation and perfectionism may also be another blocking hurdle for procrastinators.