We can define immigration as the act of coming to a foreign country to live. But here is a difference: all people who leave their native countries for another country are not called immigrants. The act of leaving one’s own country to settle in another is called immigration. Immigrants who flee their country, because of political or religious persecution, wars in their homelands are known as refugees. It is understandable that most people find it extremely hard to leave their homeland and move to another country.
But throughout history, a countless number of people have done so and the trend is still continues. Although safety is not the prime reason of people migration from developed countries to the US, however, there are other factors as well and we discuss all the issues surrounding the whole issue in the following paragraphs. • Safety: War in their Home Countries A war at home is one of the reasons why people take a crucial decision to leave their counties and choose to settle another country.
We know that in many countries of the world, especially in the African continent, many countries are under the civil strife or war. This is the reason people of those countries are leaving their homeland and coming to the US and other developed countries for safety. “Immigration patterns are also largely determined by immigrants themselves, especially when those immigrants live in a country that is under the heavy fighting”. (Borjas, 33) • Better Jobs
The first and foremost reason why everyone from third world countries wants to go to the United States is because if they would chose to immigrate some other countries, for instance, France, Germany or Japan, although these countries also offer get higher wages, there is a fair enough chance of they would get harassed, arrested or deported in those countries as opposed to United States. “There are other social and economic reasons for emigrating from one's native country to the U. S, as well.
Most of the people are indeed come to the U. S. in search of work” (Friedberg &Hunt, 23) These immigrants send their hard earned money home to support their families who still live there and depended upon them. It is understandable that if they could easily find jobs at home in the first place they would not brave the harsh conditions of the foreign land and instead would rather happily live with their family and friends. • Better Education High standard of Education in the US attracts people living in the developed countries, and this is another major reason of migration from these countries to the US.
In many developed countries, for instance, Bangladesh, China, Vietnam, Zaire, the standard of education is often very low and that make youth of these countries to come to the US for quality education to groom their careers. “Though most Chinese immigrant families see higher education as a necessary safeguard against potential racial discrimination”. (Hendricks, 198) • Freedom: to Avoid Political/Religious Prosecution Freedom is another factor of migration from developed countries to the US. Most of the developed countries do not offer much religious or political freedom to their nationals.
“Many immigrants have fled their home countries to avoid persecution or death at the hands of their own governments”. (Immigration and Naturalization Service, 2002, p17) The Purpose for having Immigrants: Advantages of Immigration Immigration is one of the reasons for population growth in the US. Keeping in mind the current trend of immigration, U. S. population will increase substantially by 2050 and 65% of this growth will be either the direct or indirect effect of immigration. The main advantages for having immigrants in the US are:
• Greater Supply Of Unskilled Workers The fact that most of the immigrants occupy low-paying, low-skill jobs, their presence is mandatory. Because of their contributions in low-paid jobs, the overall economy is stronger and the wage level and standard of living of most native workers is higher. • A Younger Workforce The ratio of retired persons to workers will dramatically increase in coming decades, which will require significant adjustments in the Social Security system. • Skilled Workers in Needed Sectors
Immigrants who arrive under the "employment preference" category often are employed in occupations, which are important. Doctors and software engineers are pouring into the US job market for the advantage of the country. (Islam, 465) Types of Immigration • Employment-Based Preference In this is category permits are given to a limited number of individuals who possess job skills, which are in demand by the economy. “In 2002, persons with computer and engineering skills dominated this group”. (Immigration and Naturalization Service, 2002, p23)
• Family Preference Permission are give to Individuals to sponsor a limited number of relatives (adult children of U. S. citizens, spouses and children of immigrants, and siblings of citizens). • Immediate Relatives of U. S. Citizens It is a category that allows nationals to sponsor an unrestricted number of small children, partners, and parents. • Diversity It is a category authorized by recent legislation that authorizes a limited number of individuals to immigrate based on past under-representation in the immigrant population. • Refugees/Asylum Seekers
These immigrants are admitted on a limited basis based on political and humanitarian reasons. The maximum numbers vary year-to-year based on Presidential determinations
Borjas, George J. , Heaven’s Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. Friedberg, Rachel M. , Hunt, Jennifer. 1995. “The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 23-44. Hendricks, Lutz. , “How Important is Human Capital for Development?
Evidence From Immigrant Earnings,” American Economic Review, vol. 92, no. 1, March 2002, pp. 198- 219. Immigration and Naturalization Service. 2002. Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1999, Washington D. C. : US Government Printing Office. Islam, Nazrul. , “Different Approaches to International Comparison of Total Factor Productivity,” in Hulten, Charles R. , Edwin R. Dean, and Michael J. Harper, eds. New Developments in Productivity Analysis, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 465-508.a