Once a treaty is contracted between contracting states they are then monitored or supervised by groups such as: • Other nation states • International government organizations: for example, united nations, international labor organizations, world health organizations, international court of justice, and international court of criminals etc. • International non government organizations (NGO’s) • Multi National Co-Operations • And, Indigenous Communities themselves. (Xanthaki 91)
The first step towards equal human rights was introduced with the universal Declaration of human rights in 1948. According to this declaration, all human beings were to be considered equal in both dignity and rights regardless of any distinction and uniqueness of any kind such as, race, sex, language, color, religion, origin, birth, or any difference in political or other opinion. However, in the presence of this declaration, still people are facing discrimination due to racism and have to face hardships due to many other kinds of hardships.
This is due o the fact, that over the years, although this declaration is there but states and contracting parties do not respect the content of the declaration due to their own benefits and also that this declaration is not being monitored due to the presence and direct domination of various super powers around the globe. There are various problems that concern indigenous people and international laws that are there to help them sustain their original integrity and Self determination. Some of the issues are as follows.
Issue of remains the core and most debated problems as the indigenous people maintain that they have the right to remain different from the communities that are now amalgamating with their culture and heritage that is there for centuries. Another issue that is a matter of great concern is that indigenous people claim that after these influential societies have settled in their land, massive deforestation and utilization of agricultural land have deprived them from necessities that they need.
These necessities include agricultural land that provides for their major food supplies. Due developments by the new settlers, their agricultural land is decreasing day be day and deforestation has caused many plants that were used for medicinal purposes to extinct. Therefore for these reasons these indigenous people demand Compensation for these losses and the issue arises when new settlers do not come on terms with them on this issue. (Westra 88)
Moreover the issue of Intellectual Property Rights came onto stage when these native people demanded compensation for their ideas and methods in the field of medicinal research that were being used by these new settlements to develop medicines. This is termed highly unfair as the company that gets the ideas from these people gets the patent for itself without any acknowledgement or compensation of the idea to the source from where it originated. (Xanthaki 57)
Also its is very common that these powerful settlers are exploiting and destructing natural resources of these lands and do not even bother to consult these natives and take a consent of how should they go about a certain developmental plan. In this Destruction of natural resources these new settlers harvest all the profits from and underneath the resourceful lands of these natives and all these natives can do is just to sit and watch what might is all about. Another important issue that remains very unfair with indigenous people is that of the Commercialization of their art in the commercial markets.
The art is originally collected from these natives which represent cultural practices and heritage that is centuries old, however new settlements who are commercializing their skill do not even compensate them here for their artistic which is basic asset of every individual. Also intellectual ideas regarding bio diversity and environmental maintenance are also exported and sold to bigger firms that then present them with their own brand names and patents. All the profits are ripped solely by these developers and no share is given to indigenous people. (Xanthaki 97)