THE Treaty of Rome is also known as the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community. This treat placed down the condition for economic community, including the development of the internal market and the common agricultural policy and the structure of the Community institutions. The concept of qualified majority voting was introduced, while many areas were under agreement. There were provisions drawn up in this treaty that after the initial period, a number of areas under agreement would pass to qualified majority.
The Treaty of Rome was set up by the EEC (European Economic Committee). This was a steel and agricultural union of European countries. EU countries decided that instead of competing with ach other they would work together. The EU countries set EEC to remove trade barriers between them and form a "common market". Agricultural union was named CAP (common Agricultural Policy). They created this union to make sure that the European farmers get well paid. UK joined the EEC in 1972, which was 15 years after it was formed.
TREATY OF MAASTRICHT ACT 1992:
The treaty of Maastricht created a single market and is also known as Treaty of European Union (TEU). It changed its name form EEC TOEU (European Union). It was signed in Dutch Town; it forms a turning point in the European mixing process. In the EU 15 countries have one single market. Companies used to pay tariffs as taxes on exporting things as there were barriers to trade. The single market actually broke all the barriers. The concept of the Three Pillars of the Union was introduced in this treaty, the first or economic pillar – the Treaty establishing the European Community, the second pillar – the Common Foreign and Security Policy, developed from the provisions introduced by the single European Act, and the third pillar – Judicial and Home Affairs.
SINGLE MARKET EUOPEAN ACT 1986:
The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major review of the Treaty of Rome. There was a great amount of happiness among European Community members in 1980. Leaders from the business political worlds were keen to match u the laws between countries and work out the policy differences. A commission was formed to find out whether a single/common market was possible in Europe countries and what need to be done to make one. The commission put forth the proposals that became the Single European ACT.
The aim was to remove remaining barriers between countries and to increase coordination, and this result to increasing the competitiveness of European countries. It improved the operating procedures of the organisations and Qualified Majority Voting was extended to new areas. An aim of a single market by 1992 was set.
The act also formally introduced the concept of the European Political Cooperation which was the foundation of the European Union's later common Foreign and Security Policy. The act was signed at Luxembourg on February 17, 1 986 and at The Haque on February 28, 1986. It went into effect on July 1, 1987.
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN TREATIES, DIRECTIVES AND REGULATIONS:
A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organisations. The treaties can be called by many names: treaties, international agreements, protocols, covenants, exchanges of letters, exchanges of notes etc. However all of these are equally treaties and the rules are the same regardless of what the treaty is called.
These are Regulations and laws which are binding on Member of State Governments. They are different from regulations in which they allow the member state to be more flexible in the timing and method of their working. The European Union is unique among international organisations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. In contrast to nations such as the United States, European nations subscribe to the principle that international law adopted by a nation overrides the national laws of its member states.
The return earned or allowed to e earned by a utility enterprise, calculated as a percentage of its fair value or rate base. Under the traditional regulatory system, state public utility commissions (PUC's) set retail rates for electricity, based on the cost of service, the capital cost of the power, transmission and distribution plants, all operations and maintenance expenses, taxes and the costs to provide programs often mandated the PUC for consumer protection and energy efficiency.
HOW THE LAW IS DIVIDED UP INTO DIFFERENT AREAS CNSUMER LEGILSATION SALES OF GOODS ACT 1979:
The goods and services are actually advertised to meet its description. It helps buyers to take recompense/actions when their purchase goes wrong. The act also states what you sell should fit its description, purpose and be satisfactory quality. The supplier has to sort out all problems. Businesses should follow the act to build a good customer relationship. The Office of Fair Trading are permitted by The Control of Misleading Advertisements Regulations (CMARs) to take legal action against any business if their advertisements are misleading or making unfair comparisons with identified competitors.
CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 1987:
The Act states a civil law right of redress for death or injury caused by using defective consumer goods. The right now lies against any supplier including the manufacturer or importer, rather than simply the person from whom the goods were purchased as was formerly the case. The Act establishes a 'general safety requirement' namely, that all goods for domestic use must be reasonably safe. The requirement has extended even further with the Service's involvement with the safety of goods. This was limited to those areas for which regulations had been made, such as toys, pushchairs, gas cookers etc.
HM Customs are in charged of the whole Service in checking goods at point of importation. The faulty goods may be destroyed. These safety provisions have been extended by the General Product Safety Regulations 1994 which applies the requirement to be safe to all domestic consumer goods.