There have been many changes in health views since the beginning of time. Some of these views stem from religious beliefs and family upbringing. Many people seemed to believe that health issues were related to evil spirits and sin. This dominant view conceived that the body and soul is an untouchable existence beyond the power of human intervention. “The medical profession – society’s primary instrument for provision of health services – shoulders a responsibility to meet society’s health care needs. In carrying out that responsibility, physicians should advocate for a less chaotic, more compassionate, and ultimately more effective system with universal, timely, access to health care”(Brett, 2012).
With the impact of scientific research more doctors began to link health with the symptoms experienced before death. The philosopher Rene Descartes introduced the viewpoint of the mind and body being connected as one. This is the belief that the mind and body are separate entities, which ignores the psychological and subjective aspects of disease.
He felt that the body and mind were intertwined with one another. He identifies that the brain was part of the physical body, whereas the mind existed in the spiritual realm. “As the field of medicine continued to advance during the early part of the twentieth century, it looked more and more to physiology and anatomy, rather than to the study of thoughts and emotions, in its search for a deeper understanding of health and illness”(Straub, 2012, p. 12). The idea that patients should seek medical help for a cure and not be blamed for his or her illness was emphasized with the Biomedical Model. “Under the impetus of the germ and cellular theories of disease, this model first became widely accepted during the nineteenth century and continues to represent the dominant view in medicine today”(Straub, 2012, p. 12).
HEALTHVIEWS 3 Studies on theories have developed in an attempt to explain how intriguing human existence is. “Psychosomatic medicine fell out of favor because it was grounded in psychoanalytic theory and predicted on the outmoded idea that a single problem is sufficient to trigger disease” (Straub, 2012, p. 28). Throughout history humans have been interested in finding out the reasons behind human behavior of not only their own but of others. “Sigmund Freud and Franz Alexander promoted the idea that specific diseases could be caused by unconscious conflicts.
These views were expanded into the field of psychosomatic medicine, which is concerned with the treatment and diagnosis of disorders caused by faulty processes within the mind” (Straub, 2012, p. 28). The reason it is important to study and interpret the behavior in light of operant conditioning is because it is the behavior which has been selected as a crucial element with survival value. “The recent decade has witnessed surging interest in behavioral interventions that target the various pathways of influence.
Among these, self-management training, breathing training, and exercise or physical activation programs have proved particularly useful, whereas other essential or promising interventions, such as smoking cessation, dietary programs, perception and biofeedback training, and suggestive or expressive psychotherapy, require further, more rigorous evaluation” (Ritz, Meuret, & Trueba, 2013). Behavioral medicine is a multifaceted approach because it uses information from more than one field of health care to develop and integrate behavior and biomedical information for prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of mental and physical disorders.
“Behavioral medicine was an outgrowth of the behaviorist movement in American psychology. Behavioral medicine explores the role of learned behavior in health and disease” (Straub, 2012, p. 28). HEALTHVIEWS 4 The profession of medicine has changed impressively over the past few decades in four domains: technological transition; structural transition; knowledge transition; epidemiological transition. Current views of healthcare promotion are just that- views to promote health. Over the past 30 years, health promotion has been placed front and center in the health care arena.
As evidence based research continues, healthcare providers have a better understanding of disease and illness within our society and gives us the basis for promoting health. Prevention of illness and disease is the foundation to health. Although the biomedical model resulted in beneficial treatments and created an understanding in disease, it has been criticized from social and behavioral regiments such as psychology, sociology, and within medicine.
One of the major criticisms is that the biomedical model underestimates the complexity of health and illness, by neglecting social and psychological factors. Many argue that the biomedical model does not take into account of all the factors that have an impact on a patient’s health. The model has ignored the social and psychological factors that exist such as patient’s mood, paucity, insufficiency on the job, and other conditions that can affect an individual’s physical and mental health. The model takes more into account on how to treat or cure disease rather than the prevention of the disease. It focuses on the biological process of the actual person rather than the social or emotional process of the individual.
Biomedical devices have also been discovered to save or improve the quality of a patient’s life. Many people do not realize that everyday things they use come from biomedical devices such as, catheters, contact lenses, artificial heart valves, hip implants, and pacemakers. Conclusion HEALTHVIEWS 5 “Given the high comorbidity with anxiety and mood disorders, further evaluation of illness-specific cognitive behavior therapy is of particular importance. Progress has also been made in devising community-based and culturally tailored intervention programs” (Ritz, Meuret,& Trueba, 2013).
Education is defiantly one of the leading networks to support compliance with the bio- medical model of health. As new theories are developing there is an increasing knowledge into different ways medical procedures can be done to fund for such a diverse range of cultures and beliefs. A lack of education can lead a person not to comply with the bio- medical model of health. Living in a highly enriched country, with such a vast opportunity to education, we are taught the basic day-to-day doings that control the spread of infectious disease. It is clear that the psychoanalytic approach relies heavily on mentalist states and leaves the role of the physical environment in the background in its interpretation of behavior.
This characteristic has been perceived by others, either as strength or a weakness, who have in turn developed their own theories of personality with a focus on other aspects of the psyche and the environment. References HEALTHVIEWS 6 Brett, A. (2012, fall). Physicians have a responsibility to meet the health care needs of society. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics:
A Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 40(3), 526-31. Retrieved from http://www. uopx. com Gold, A. (2010, March). Physicians’ “right of conscience” — beyond politics. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 38(1), 134-142. Retrieved from http://www. uopx. com Ritz, T. , Meuret, A. E. , & Trueba, A. F. (2013, April). Psychosocial factors and behavioral medicine interventions in asthma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 81(2), 231-250. Retrieved from http://www. uopx. com Straub, R. O. (2012). Health psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach (3rd ed). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.