All modern businesses

The prospect of self-actualisation is achieved by offering employees the opportunity for training, promotion, which will allow them to work their way up the job ladder, to their maximum potential. Douglas McGregor's theory of the x and y managers was published in a book called 'The Human Side Of Enterprise', in 1960. His theory stereotypes all managers into two groups, type x and type y. Type x manager's work on the assumption that all human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can.

Due to this they work on the principle of reward and punishment, or stick and carrot. McGregor believed that type x managers are lazy, obtuse, dislike responsibility and need to use control factors to motivate employees, such as pay. Theory x managers contradict, since it relies on employees needing only financial gain to motivate them. Theory x managers give only context factors, which, in Hertzberg's opinion do not motivate. Theory y managers are creative and aim to develop potential. They work under the assumption that control and punishment are not the only way to get people to work.

People will be more productive if they are committed to the aims of the organisation, and they will be committed if they have job satisfaction Asda attempt to use type y managers since, employees are encouraged to be creative, with ideas such as the 'tell Tony' scheme mentioned above. But there is one outlying principle used by Asda, which, shows that management cannot be stereotyped, in that employees are financially punished, if they receive an official warning, in that they lose their bonus.

Hertzberg theory is that there are context or hygiene factors and motivators or content factors. Context or hygiene factors do not motivate, but without them there would be dissatisfaction. These factors involve the work environment rather than what people actually do on the job. Context factors are, salary, supervision, security, working conditions and status. Motivators or content factors are factors, which, motive employees and involves what people actually do on the job. These are achievement, recognition, advancement and responsibility.

As with Maslow the context factors, which are the same as the physiological needs and the security needs, have to be fulfilled before the content factors can be fulfilled, which are similar to the higher tiers of Maslow's hierarchy, but it is separated into two tiers, rather than five. I believe Hertzberg's theory to be a modification of Maslow's theory that is more applicable to the modern world, since modern or basic needs, no longer include only food, shelter and warmth, most people will consider a TV, car, etc, basic needs.

These modern basic needs can be covered by Hertzberg's context factors. Asda use Hertzberg's theory, since it is a modern extension of Maslow's theory, as I explained above. Taylor theory was not about motivation; rather it was about specialisation, which had the same final result as motivation, increased productivity and efficiency. Taylor formed the basis for all the theorists with his introduction of the scientific approach to decision making. Taylor's theory is still applicable to all professions, since he created specialisation, which is the basis of all modern businesses.

Previous to Taylor creating specialisation workers had changed jobs erratically, so people never learnt how to do a job efficiently, but when Taylor introduced specialisation people only did one type of job, weaving for example, so they became skilled in doing that specific thing, so the production line was more efficient. During this assignment I have developed a more though understanding of what motivates people and the theories developed to motivate people. Prior to completing this assignment I had failed to realise the importance of motivation.