The United States Constitution is known for the Supreme law of the land in the United States, which creates a federal power system of government and shared between the state and federal governments (United States Court, 2011). Federal and state policies are both put into place to help protect business and individuals from harm. This policy comparison will provide information on the policies of the Federal and state governments, such as the similarities, differences, and implications for the criminal justice system as well as the potential effectiveness and limitations.
Federal law enforcement agencies work with certain crimes. Three known agencies are the FBI also known as the Federal Bureau of Investigations, the United States Marshal, and United States Border Patrol (Gil, 2009). The FBI is responsible for major criminal investigations such as counterterrorism, cybercrime, organized crime, and major violent crimes. The United States Marshals are responsible for protecting federal judges and courts, fugitives, transporting high-risk prisoners, and protecting witnesses. Last, the Border Patrol prevent from illegal entry of aliens and lawful travel and trade (Gil, 2009).
State and federal law enforcement go by the same rules. The only differences are that the agencies have jurisdictions, staffing, and operations of its own. The federal court government has its own court system. Federal courts only hear cases that violates the United States Constitution or federal laws and case that involves bankruptcy, copyright, patent, and maritime law cases (Find Law, 2011). As stated in the readings, “federal courts may hear cases concerning state laws if the issue is whether the state law violates the federal Constitution” (Find Law, 2011, p. 1).
According to the information on state versus Federal prison system, the federal prison has been less dangerous than the state prison (Cartmell, 2011). The federal prison deals with criminals such as drug dealers, bank robbers, and anyone who violates the immigration laws. The federal prison system operates five levels of security with minimum to maximum. State Law enforcement agencies are in charge of keeping rural areas, highways, and other areas within the state safe. State agencies are also responsible for keeping motor vehicles inspected by United States regulations (Gil, 2009).
The state police agencies deal with criminal investigations, public relations as well as community initiatives (Gil, 2009). State courts have broad jurisdiction and most cases most individuals would be involved in would be robbery, traffic violations, family matters, and broken contracts (Find Law, 2011). According to the readings, “the state courts handle by far the larger number of cases and have more contact with the public than federal courts do” (Find Law, 2011, p. 1). State government courts added their own laws, which discrimination from workplace is not allowed.
If any case is a state law case, the case can only be brought up in the state government courts (Find Law, 2011). State prison agencies deal with convicted offenders who break the state law, such as rapist, drunk drivers, murderers, and domestic violence. According to the information on state versus Federal prison system, the state prison has been more dangerous than the federal prison (Cartmell, 2011). As stated in the readings, “State prison systems generally operate facilities at various levels of security, with maximum, medium and minimum security facilities” (Cartmell, 2011, p.1).
The federal and state policies help individuals and businesses from any harm or criminal activity. Federal policies are there to protect the country from any negative or criminal actions. The state policies work under the federal government, which the state can make changes in the policies to provide a better and safer state for the people. Federal and state policies both achieve the same goals and protecting rights. Places that require the use of federal and state policies to help the public are the hospitals, health department, or school policies.
For example, a policy at a hospital would be when a patient signs the information sheet that states that any personal information will not be shared with anyone else unless authorized by the client. If the clients right is broken than the hospital could face a lawsuit and even fined. The United States courts are set up at different levels, such as the federal and state courts, which include the county and municipal courts. The federal and state courts deal with similar cases but have the same responsibilities.
As stated in the readings, “federal courts is the venue for an international conspiracy charge and municipal courts handle traffic violations” (Marion and Oliver, 2006, p. 130), but most court may deal with murder cases and kidnap cases, depending on the jurisdiction. The Constitution serves as the foundation for legal activity. Whether in federal or state court, the accused have constitutional rights and protections. State policies can be overturned by the federal government and regulated state policies can change depending on federal regulations and implication.
Many comply with multiple layers of rules and regulations. Tax laws often apply at the local, state, and federal level and such laws can vary from state to state. The same is true for nearly all areas of policy, including energy, and environmental policy. For example, the federal cap-and-trade program for nitrogen oxide emissions requires certain states to participate in the program, but each state is permitted to implement the program as it sees fit within specified guidelines. In conclusion, federal, and state policies are both put into place to help protect business and individuals from harm.
The United States courts are set up at different levels, such as the federal and state courts, which include the county and municipal courts. The federal and state courts deal with similar cases but have the same responsibilities. State and federal law enforcement go by the same rules. The only differences are that the agencies have jurisdictions, staffing, and operations of its own. Reference Carmell, P (2011). State Prison versus Federal Prison. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com/facts_7631192_state-vs-federal-prison-system. html Find Law (2011).
Federal vs. State Courts – Key Differences. Retrieved from http://public. findlaw. com/library/legal-system/fcourts-vs-scourts. html Gil, R. (2009). Local, State and Federal Law Enforcement Agencies. Retrieved from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/2076781/local_state_and_federal_law_enforcement. html? cat=17 Marion, N. E. and Oliver, W/M. 2006. The Public Policy of Crime and Criminal Justice. Pearson/Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ. Susan Welch and Kay Thompson American Journal of Political Science Vol. 24, No. 4 (Nov. , 1980).