Western Industrial Revolution

Abstract The Scientific Revolution changed industrial productivity in the West in several ways. Changes in thoughts and beliefs and social and institutional organization were happening daily starting around 1550. The Scientific Revolution began with Nicholas Copernicus’ assertion of heliocentric cosmos and ended with Isaac Newton’s universal laws and a mechanical universe. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain for several reasons.

The economy would be more beneficial from an industrial standpoint rather than an agricultural standpoint. Machines made it easier and faster to produce goods, which allowed for creating larger markets and better transportation. Although these changes greatly benefitted Britain, initially, society had a hard time adjusting to these changes.

The Industrial Revolution in Britain allowed for expansion in trade, feudalism, free market, and a new scientific approach to farming. Other new technologies began to take affect in Britain that helped benefit the nation including the use of iron replaced the diminishing charcoal supply, the production of the steam engine and other important inventions, transportation technology, and a factory system. These new systems allowed for Britain to succeed and become a powerful nation.

Western Industry Revolution The Scientific Revolution changed industrial productivity in the West in several ways. Francis Bacon believed that natural philosophy; science, could be applied to the solution of practical problems, and so, the idea of modern technology was born (Kreis, 2011). Changes in thoughts and beliefs and social and institutional organization were happening daily starting around 1550.

The Scientific Revolution began with Nicholas Copernicus’ assertion of heliocentric cosmos. Heliocentric cosmos refers to the sun being in the center of the universe and the planets rotating around it (Hatch, 2000). Prior to the heliocentric model, the geocentric model was believed to be more realistic.

Copernicus was able to show evidence as technology progressed and his theory gained popularity. He was able to theorize the model by the use of geometry and predicted the movement of the planets around the sun. Another product that was created that gave the West a leap in productivity was by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. Catholic Europe went from following the old style Julian calendar to the new style Gregorian calendar that was better reformed and more accurate. In 1854, Joost Brugi created an accurate clock that led to manageable time keeping (Hatch, 2000).

In 1608 the first telescope spyglass was created and used in the Netherlands. In 1698, an important breakthrough was made when Thomas Savery successful invented the steam engine that changed the mining industry forever. Isaac Newton changed the course of Britain’s future with the creation of the mathematical principles of natural philosophy that came to be known as classical mechanics.

He was interested in and studied mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy. According to Robert Hatch, author of Scientific Revolution, Newton created a new set of 'mental categories' now associated with the concepts of force, mass, acceleration as evidenced in three 'laws of motion' and principle of universal gravitation (2000). He used a telescope to prove that the color white was not a single entity, but consisted of multiple colors. Through his research he was able to discover a prism of colors.

Though he was not an author, he published several of his works for future reference. Newton made history in Britain by his thorough study in mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy as well as becoming appointed warden of the Royal Mint. He was very serious about his duties at the Mint and later campaigned against corruption and inefficiency within the organization. In 1703, he was elected president of the Royal Society, an office he held until his death in 1727. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain for several reasons.

The economy would be more beneficial from an industrial standpoint rather than an agricultural standpoint. Almost every aspect of life at that time was affected by the Industrial Revolution. Population began to grow in Britain, which meant there would be more individuals that were able to work, earning more income for each family.

Machines made it easier and faster to produce goods, which allowed for creating larger markets and better transportation (Mack, 2005). Jobs that usually took long periods of time because of being done with manpower soon became a quicker process with the introduction of machinery.

Machinery mane is possible for the same amount of work to be done in a quarter of the time it could have taken to get done by humans (Kreis, 2011). Although these changes greatly benefitted Britain, initially, society had a hard time adjusting to these changes. Workdays were shortened and individuals had more time on their hands than what they knew to do with.

Technology advancements allowed for the development of more efficient machinery. Coal fuelled steam power, water wheels, and powered textile manufacturing machinery greatly increased production, allowing for increased sales and trade. Waterways made it possible for ships to sail across the ocean to other countries to sell and trade their produce and goods to other nations. The Industrial Revolution in Britain allowed for expansion in trade, feudalism, free market, and a new scientific approach to farming (Mack, 2005).

Other new technologies began to take affect in Britain that helped benefit the nation including the use of iron replaced the diminishing charcoal supply, the production of the steam engine and other important inventions, transportation technology, and a factory system. Factory systems consisted of textile factories, spinning wheels, and handlooms that kept women from having to manually sew and weave every article of clothing or fabric produced.

These new systems allowed for more spinning to be done and led Britain to succeed and become a powerful nation. The second Industrial Revolution benefited Britain even more than the first. During this time, steam powered ships and railway systems were invented which allowed for international sales of goods (Kreis, 2011). This made the economy even stronger than it was helped create a dominating force to be reckoned with. Throughout the 1500s to the 1700s, much advancement took place that allowed for Britain’s leap in productivity.

The Scientific Revolution changed industrial productivity in the West by creating changes in thoughts and beliefs and social and institutional organization. The Scientific Revolution began with Nicholas Copernicus’ assertion of heliocentric cosmos and ended with Isaac Newton’s universal laws and a mechanical universe. Britain’s economy benefited from an industrial progress. Machinery made it easier and faster to produce goods, which allowed for creating larger markets and better transportation.

Britain had expansion in trade, feudalism, and free market. Other new technologies began to take affect in Britain that helped benefit the nation including the use of iron replaced the diminishing charcoal supply, the production of the steam engine and other important inventions, transportation technology, and a factory system. These new systems allowed for Britain to succeed and become a powerful nation.

References Hatch, Robert (2000). Scientific Revolution. Retrieved June 8, 2013 from http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/rhatch/pages/03-Sci-Rev/SCI-REV-Home/ Mack, Pamela (2005). Clemson University. British Industrial Revolution Retrieve June 8, 2013 from http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/britir.htm Kreis, Steven (2011). History Guide. Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved June 8, 2013 from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html