United Nations Security Council Research Paper

1. Applicability: The below mentioned rules are applicable to the Security Council, General Assembly committees, Economic and Social Council, Historic and Futuristic Simulations, Special Committees, Indian Committees and any other committee which is a part of the Indian International Model United Nations or any of its affiliated conferences unless specific instructions have been provided for in the rules. Any deviation from the rules mentioned requires permission from the Secretary General of the conference. STANDARD RULES 2. Representation: All councils shall have one delegate/’s representing one country having one vote.

Non-governmental Organizations & Special Observers shall have one representative only; they will be allowed to vote on working papers, amendments and resolutions that pertain to them i. e. in an agenda which is directly concerning them. On all other agendas they will be allowed to vote on all issues expect working papers, amendments and resolutions. In case of a dispute regarding the pertinence of a particular agenda to a non-member of the United Nations, the decision of the Executive board/ Chair shall be final and binding. 3. Language: The official language for the conference shall be English.

The use of any of the following five languages is permitted a. Russian b. Chinese c. Arabic d. Spanish e. French f. Hindi If the delegate wishes to use any of the 6 afore mentioned languages during the length, a written request at least 7 days prior to the conference needs to be submitted to the Committee Chair. 4. Attire: The delegates are expected to be in Western formals during the conference hours and boys are expected to wear a blazer or suit whilst addressing committee in all days except for one day where all delegates are expected to wear Indian Formals. 5. Use of Electronic Equipment:

The use of mobile phones, laptops, notepads and such other electronic devices is strictly prohibited when committee is in progress. However, a delegate may use his electronic device outside the committee room or during the Unmoderated Caucus. 6. Sessions: Each session of the conference shall not be longer than 3 hours, which will be followed by a mandatory break for 10 minutes. The Conference shall have a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 10 such sessions. POWERS OF THE ORGANIZING COUNCIL & EXECUTIVE BOARD 7. Executive board: The decision of the chair on matters regarding debate is final and binding on all delegates.

Also if a delegate is not behaving in a parliamentary fashion he/she can be barred from council after being given sufficient warnings. The Executive board has the power to question any delegate and ask for justification about his/her stand on a particular issue if they feel it is contrary to their country policy or could help enlighten committee better. However, a decision of the Executive board can be appealed against (Rule 8) and so also the chair impeached (Rule 9). 8. Appeal: The delegates have an option if dissatisfied with the verdict of the chair or if they wish to question the chair about the way they are conducting the committee to appeal to the chair.

Example: After being recognized ‘Permission to appeal to the chair’, on being given permission, the delegate can voice his/her grievance to the chair within a minute’s time frame, after which the chair may or may not take into consideration the delegate’s recommendation. 9. Impeachment: If the delegates in the committee are extremely dissatisfied with the way the chair is conducting proceedings, a written request signed by at least 2/3rd’s of the committee’s members can be submitted to the Secretary-General for the ouster of the chair. The decision of the Secretary-General in this matter shall be final and binding. 10.

Organizing Council: If any delegate or observer if found to be behaving in an inappropriate manner he/she can be barred from the conference for an entire day or for the complete conference by the President of the organizing council whose decision on matters apart from conference debate shall be final and binding. 11. Secretary-General: The Secretary-General has sweeping powers bestowed upon him/her and his/her decision is final and binding and cannot be challenged in relation to matters regarding debate. RULES REGARDING DEBATE A) NORMAL DEBATE 12. Quorum: The minimum number of members present and voting in council should

be at least 1/5th the committee strength. Indian international Model united nations 13. Setting an Agenda: In case a committee has a choice between two topic areas to choose from, the committee shall decide upon one in the following manner: a. The Chair will call for any points or motions on the floor, to which a delegate b. The chair shall call for those who are against the motion, if there is any c. This shall be followed by an informal vote by a show of placards, a 51% or can rise to a motion to set the agenda to a particular topic area.

Opposition then there shall be 1 speech for and 1 against the topic area both to a maximum of one and a half minute each. More majority is required for the motion to pass. If the motion fails then the second topic area automatically is set for discussion. 14. Speakers List: A speakers list is automatically opened and remains open throughout the discussion of the topic area unless committee chooses to move into a moderated caucus or unmoderated caucus. A speakers list is a place where a delegate expresses his/her country’s stand on the topic area. The time limit is pre-set to one and a half minute per delegate.

15. Yields: At the end of a speech in the speakers list (yields cannot be exercised during any other part of debate), a delegate has the following ways in which he can yield: a. Yield to another delegate: This is only applicable if the delegate has more b. Yield to questions: The delegate can yield to questions, a maximum of two than 15 seconds of his/her time remaining. He/she can give his/her remaining time to another delegate. Questions can be asked and follow ups can be entertained with the permission of the chair. Executive Board Members have the option to ask questions to the delegates. c. Yield to comments: The chair recognizes two 30 second comments. 16.

Moderated Caucus: A detailed discussion on a sub-topic of the main agenda is possible in a moderated caucus and the main reason on starting a moderated caucus is to know the committee’s opinion on such an issue. A delegate can motion for a moderated caucus in the following manner, example ‘Motion to open a moderated caucus to discuss ________ for the time duration _________ (max 15 minutes) and time per speaker ________ (maximum 1 minute)’ A motion for a moderated caucus requires a simple majority to pass and can be passed through an informal vote. In case of multiple motions the chair shall decide on which one to put to vote first.

A moderated caucus can be started in the middle of the Speakers list i. e. it is not compulsory for the delegates to finish hearing all the speakers on the list. 17. Points: During the course of debate, the following points are in order: a. Point of Personal Privilege: This is the only point that can interrupt a speaker b. Point of Parliamentary Inquiry: This cannot interrupt a speaker and is c. Point of Order: This is to point out the procedural inconsistency or deviation and is used when a delegate cannot hear the speaker or is experiencing discomfort and wishes to be excused from committee. exercised when a delegate

wants to know anything about procedure from procedure by a particular delegate. Again this point cannot interrupt a speaker and the verdict of the Chair on the same shall be final and binding. d. Point of Information: This is a point which helps to clarify any factual inaccuracy in a delegate’s speech. If one finds that another delegate has misstated a particular fact after the completion of the delegates speech, one may raise his/her placard and on being recognized may ask for valid documentation supporting the delegates facts. This point cannot however beused for questioning a change in the country’s policy.

The accepted sources of documentation for all committees, organs and special simulations of the United Nations are: Reuters, Amnesty International and any other such credible source approved by the executive board in consensus with the Secretary-General of the conference. For Indian/ Regional Bodies the accepted source is dependent on the presiding officer/chair of the committee. 18. Order of Recognition of Points: a. Point of Personal Privilege b. Point of Information c. Point of Order d.

Point of Parliamentary Inquiry 19. Unmoderated Caucus: This is when the committee feels the need to discuss or decide upon a particular issue in an informal way. It is basically provided in procedure for delegates to help them form working papers (rule 19) and draft resolutions (rule 20). A delegate can call for an unmoderated caucus in the following manner: Motion to open an unmoderated caucus for the time duration _________ (max 15 minutes)’ A motion for an un moderated caucus requires a simple majority to pass and can be passed through an informal vote. This motion can be extended by another 5 minutes for preparing Resolutions/ Declarations. 20. Working Papers:

These are the committee’s views on a particular sub-topic of the main agenda at hand. They provide direction to the committee and indicate which way the committee is flowing. A working paper has no prescribed format and needs no signatories. Before introduction to committee, a working paper needs to be approved by the Chair. A working paper needs a simple majority to be introduced on the floor of the committee and voting can be carried out in an informal way. In case of multiple working papers the Chair has the discretion in putting which one to vote first. If a working paper is passed it has to be incorporated in the resolution.

The voting on a working paper can be done in an informal way by a show of placards. 21. Resolution: The solution to the entire agenda is called a resolution. A resolution requires a minimum of 1 author and 3 signatories to be introduced to council, this minimum requirement holds true for every council irrespective of the council size. An author is one who formulates the resolution and cannot vote against the resolution, whereas a signatory is a person who simply consents to having the resolution being discussed in council and can exercise his/her vote in the way he/she pleases. In case of multiple resolutions being brought to the Chair at the same time, the one with more number of signatories shall be put to the committee for voting first.

A resolution before being introduced requires the prior approval and signature of the chair. The voting on introduction of the resolution for debate can be done in an informal manner however, the voting regarding the passing of the resolution must be done through Indian international Model United Nations formal voting procedure (Rule 33). The resolution also has to be according to the prescribed format mentioned in Annexure I. 22. Amendments: a. Friendly Amendments: An amendment which is agreed upon by the author/’s does not require any kind of voting.

b. Normal Amendments: Amendments that are introduced by any other need not be voted upon by the council and is directly incorporated in the resolution. delegate than the author/’s need no formal/informal vote for introduction and are introduced at the chairs discretion. However, for passing an amendment and incorporating it in the resolution, an informal vote will suffice. 23. E-mendments: Any correction of any grammatical error or deviation from the prescribed format for procedure writing is called an e-mendment and does not require any voting but a simple approval of the chair.

B) RULES GOVERNING ‘EMERGENCY’ DEBATE: 24. Quorum: There should be at least 1/5th situation. 25. Recognizing Speakers: In case there is an emergency situation that arises there will be no speakers list, the chair shall recognize up to 10 individuals in order of involvement to speak for a time period of a minute each. 26. Moderated Caucus: The topics for the moderated caucus shall be decided by the chair and so shall the time frame and the time per speaker. 27. Points: All points mentioned in Rule 17 except for the point of personal privilege shall be suspended for the duration of the emergency. 28.

Unmoderated Caucus: This shall remain the same as mentioned in Rule 18. 29. Declaration: This is a combination of a working paper and a resolution but is easier and faster. A declaration is also in the same prescribed format as a resolution as mentioned in Annexure I and requires 1 author and 3 signatories apart from prior approval from the chair. An informal vote is enough for deciding which declaration to discuss but for passing a declaration a formal voting is required. C) RULES COMMON TO BOTH FORMS OF DEBATE: 30. Challenge: This is when a delegate can challenge another delegate over a particular issue for a specified period of time, this may be over a particular sub-topic or country policy.

This is one on one debate. A delegate may motion for in the following manner ‘Motion to challenge the delegate/delegation of ______ over _____ (topic area) for a time duration of ____ (maximum 3 minutes). ’ 31. Question Answer Session: This is when many delegates need to ask questions to a delegate. Any delegate may call for the same and a maximum of up to 10 questions can be asked by committee to that delegate. In case of questioning the of those members involved in the emergency Indian international Model united nations authors of a resolution, a maximum of 2 delegates are allowed to be on the dais to answer questions posed by the committee. To call for the same, a delegate can motion thus :

‘Motion to move into a question answer session with the delegate of ___ , total time period ____ (maximum 10 minutes) , total number of questions ___ (maximum of 10 questions)’ 32. 1 for 1 against: This is when committee usually cannot decide on a particular issue and therefore before the final vote needs to hear both sides of the argument. This an be extended to a 2 for and 2 against. The time limit for each speaker is 1 minute each. 33.

Formal Voting: This is required only for passing a resolution or a declaration and takes place in 3 rounds. No observer other than those who have been bestowed the right to vote since their country is directly related to the topic area (Rule 2), member of press or administration staff is allowed to be present during voting. There are 3 rounds of voting: a. Round 1: All delegates have an option between choosing b. Round 2: All delegates that have opted for rights get to justify their positions c. Round 3: Delegates have to cast their final vote which cannot change between i. Yes ii. No iii. Yes with rights

iv. No with rights v. Abstain vi. Pass within one minute. a yes, no and abstain. A resolution passes if it has a 2/3rd majority Clause by Clause Voting: This is applicable only to resolutions and not declarations. A delegate may motion for this and informal voting shall take place clause by clause a simple majority is required for each clause to pass. However, the entire resolution shall be put to vote through formal voting procedure. 34. Tabling of Resolutions/Working papers/ Declaration:

The delegates of the council have a choice to ‘table’ any of the three mentioned documents at any point of time during their deliberation in council for which they require a 2/3rdinformal vote. 35. Presidential Statement: A delegate during the course of debate can make a presidential statement. This will help him to express his/her stand on a particular issue. This can be followed by a yield to questions only (maximum 2 questions). This can be done anytime during debate. 36. Joint Statement: Two countries can come together and make a joint announcement regarding their views on the topic areas. The Chair can invalidate the statement if it is not important in context to the agenda at hand.

A joint statement can be made anytime during committee majority in council majority through an Indian international Model united nations 37. Censure: The delegates can censure a fellow delegate by motioning for the same but in order for it to be successful it has to have a 2/3rd majority through an informal vote. This motion can be overruled at the discretion of the chair. RESOLUTION/DECLARATION WRITING: The most important part of a conference is drafting the solution to the agenda or crisis at hand. The Indian International Model United Nations Procedure specifically aims at providing an easy way to do so. A resolution before being passed is always referred to as a Draft resolution and is prepared in two parts in the following format:

1) Pre-ambulatory Clauses: These are clauses which are an introduction to the resolution or solution and often refer to past resolutions, citations of speeches made and references to the UN charter. Every pre-ambulatory clause starts with any one of the following pre-ambulatory phases and ends with a comma: List of Pre-ambulatory Phrases Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Bearing in mind Believing Confident Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply conscious Deeply convinced Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Emphasizing.

Expecting Expressing its appreciation Expressing its satisfaction Fulfilling Fully alarmed Fully aware Fully believing Further deploring Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having considered further Having devoted attention Having examined Having heard Having received Having studied Keeping in mind Noting with regret Noting with deep concern Noting with satisfaction Noting further Noting with approval Observing Reaffirming Realizing Recalling Recognizing Referring Seeking Taking into account Taking into consideration Taking note Viewing with appreciation Welcoming.

2) Operative Clauses: These are the clauses which contain the actual solution to the agenda or crisis. They begin with an operative phrase and end in a semi- colon expect for the last clause of the resolution which ends in a full stop. List of Operative Phrases Accepts Affirms Approves Authorizes Calls Calls upon Condemns Confirms Congratulates Considers ANNEXURE A Declares accordingly Deplores Designates Draws the attention Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its appreciation Expresses its hope Further invites Deplores Designates Draws the attention Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its appreciation.

Expresses its hope Further invites Further proclaims Further reminds Further recommends Further requests Further resolves Has resolved Notes Proclaims Reaffirms Recommends Regrets Reminds Requests Solemnly affirms Strongly condemns Supports Takes note of Transmits Trusts Also a declaration or a resolution needs to have authors and signatories, the former being those who are responsible for ideating and structuring the solution whereas the latter just being a group of people who simply consent to discuss the prepared document in council. Sample Draft Resolution Resolution Topic Area- Global Counternarcotic Effort.

Author- United Kingdom Recalling its resolution 48/12 of 28th October 1993 and resolution 1904, Appreciating the efforts made by UK to counter narcotics in Afghanistan by several means: a) Funding the Counternarcotic Conference hosted in Kabul on 5-6th Sep 2011 to discuss ways to enhance co-operation and agree on a number of joint measures to take this forward, b) Providing over euro 2. 5 million directly to support the ministry’s work and to implement its National Drug Control Strategy, c) Over 2,000 pounds of heroin and 2 bomb makers were intercepted in Afghanistan with the help of UK and its coalition troops,

d) The UK supports the Counter Narcotics Police Of Afghanistan through training and equipping the force and the CNPA now operates in 34 provinces all over the country Profoundly alarmed by the magnitude of the rising trend in drug abuse, illicit production and trafficking in narcotics which threatens the health and well- being of millions of persons, in particular the youth, in all countries of the world, Gravely concerned that, despite increased efforts by States and relevant International.

Organizations like the UNODC and the WHO , the illicit demand for, production of and trafficking in narcotic drugs has expanded globally, Fully Aware that 85 percent of crimes all around the world are because of illicit drugs and also that the war on drugs has caused the international committee 18 billion in the past few years, Convinced of the desirability of closer coordination and cooperation among States in combating drug-related crimes, such as terrorism, illicit arms trade and money laundering, and bearing in mind the role that could be played by both the United Nations and regional organizations in this respect, Reaffirming that a comprehensive framework for an international co-operation in drug control is provided by the existing drug control conventions.

Emphasizing on the fact that all nations should adhere to the zero-tolerance policy, The General Assembly, 1. Calls upon all States to adopt adequate national laws and regulations, to strengthen national judicial systems and to carry out effective drug control activities in cooperation with other States; 2. Emphasizes the need for effective government action to prevent the diversion to illicit markets of precursors and essential chemicals, materials and equipment used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs; 3. Acknowledges that there are links between the illicit production of narcotic

drugs and the social conditions in the affected countries and that there are differences and diversity in the problems of each country; 4. Strongly suggests that border security in all nations is made stronger and is kept in touch with the UNODC; 5. Encouraging protection of human rights, reconciliation, and nonviolent approaches; 6. Instructs Mexico and Afghanistan to provide better facilities for the people of their county to reduce the number of addicts;

7. Further emphasizes on the amendment of the zero-tolerance policy,USA should try the criminals in court instead of shooting them on sight because of the gross human right violations; 8. Appeals to the UN to send UNPKF’s to patrol the US-Mexican borders; 9. Considers increased action by law enforcement agencies such as the FBI to suppress of crime rarely is a sufficient response; 10. Decides to remain actively ceased on the matter. The official rules of procedure of the Indian International Model United Nations are a property of Aufklaren Events LLP and any copy, re-printing or usage has to be done with the express written permission from the company. For further details contact [email protected] in. Indian International Model United Nations.