United Nations Security Council Analysis Paper Example

Introduction I) THE UNITED NATIONS THE UNITED NATIONS IS AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION INSTITUTED WITH A VISIONARY GOAL AND OBJECTIVE OF PROMOTING WORLD PEACE, SECURITY, AND COOPERATION UNDER THE TERMS OF THE CHARTER, SIGNED BY MEMBER COUNTRIES. ESTABLISHED IN 1945 BY 51 FOUNDING STATES, THE INSTITUTION HAS ITS HEADQUARTERS AT NEW YORK CITY. THE FOCAL POINT OF THE ORGANIZATION IS FOCUS ON AFFAIRS OF THE GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND DIPLOMACY WORLDWIDE, AND ENCOMPASSES ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. IMPLEMENTATION OF THESE DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES WORKS TO IMPROVE HUMAN RIGHTS AND REDUCE CONFLICTS AMONG ITS MEMBER COUNTIES.

II) THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL THE UNITED NATIONS IS COMPOSED OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY (FOR LEGISLATION), A SECURITY COUNCIL (FOR THE PROMOTION OF PEACE), A SECRETARIAT (ADMINISTRATION AND INFORMATION) AS WELL AS THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (FOR JUDICIAL MATTERS). UNDER THE CHARTER, THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS A PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY. THE SECURITY COUNCIL TAKES THE LEAD IN DETERMINING THE EXISTENCE OF A THREAT TO THE PEACE OR ACT OF AGGRESSION. WHILE THE UN HAS HAD ITS FAIR SHARE OF SUCCESS, IT HAS ALSO ENCOUNTERED SEVERAL OBSTACLES IN ITS PATH OF EXECUTING PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS.

THIS PAPER INVESTIGATES THE CHALLENGES THAT THE COUNCIL HAS STUMBLED UPON IN ITS MANDATE TO MAINTAIN WORLD PEACE AND ORDER. ALSO OF IMPORTANCE ARE THE MEASURES AND PROPOSITIONS PROJECTED TO HELP THE COUNCIL OVERCOME THESE BARRIERS. 1. Using examples, explain any five challenges of the UN Security Council in its mandate to maintain world peace and order THE WORLD HAS CHANGED DRAMATICALLY SINCE THE UNITED NATIONS WAS ESTABLISHED AFTER WORLD WAR II, BUT THE ORGANIZATION HAS NOT ADAPTED TO REFLECT THE 21ST CENTURY. ITS AGING STRUCTURE HAS STRUGGLED WITH NEW THREATS LIKE EBOLA AND TERRORIST GROUPS THAT CONTROL LARGE AREAS OF ITS MEMBER COUNTRIES.

U. N. MEMBERS HAVE BEEN DISCUSSING CHANGE FOR DECADES, BUT AGREEMENT HAS PROVEN IMPOSSIBLE BECAUSE OF COMPETING INTERESTS. AS IT APPROACHES ITS 70TH ANNIVERSARY NEXT YEAR, HERE ARE FIVE PROBLEMS FACING THE UNITED NATIONS. a) Outdated Structure and Composition of the UNSC THE SAME FIVE COUNTRIES — THE VICTORS OF WORLD WAR II — HAVE BEEN THE POWER PLAYERS SINCE 1945: THE UNITED STATES, RUSSIA, CHINA, BRITAIN AND FRANCE. THEY ARE THE ONLY PERMANENT MEMBERS OF THE POWERFUL, 15-SEAT SECURITY COUNCIL.

THESE FIVE PERMANENT STATES ENJOY AN EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO SINGLEHANDEDLY VETO ANY RESOLUTION PROPOSED. THE VETO POWER HAS LED TO NEAR- PARALYSIS AT THE COUNCIL ON SOME MAJOR CRISES LIKE SYRIA AND UKRAINE, RWNDA IN 1994 AS WELLAS DARFUR IN 2004. CRITICS SAY THE COUNCIL SIMPLY DOESN’T REPRESENT THE WORLD TODAY. AT ITS INCEPTION, THE U. N. HAD 51 MEMBER STATES. IT NOW HAS 193, MANY OF THEM CLAMORING FOR MORE CLOUT. OFTEN MENTIONED AS COUNTRIES DESERVING OF PERMANENT SECURITY COUNCIL SEATS ARE GERMANY, JAPAN, INDIA, SOUTH AFRICA, NIGERIA AND BRAZIL. BUT THERE ARE NO SIGNS THE BIG FIVE INTEND TO GIVE UP ANY POWER OR SHARE IT WITH MORE COUNTRIES.

THIS LEADS TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THE COUNCIL IS UNFAIRLY REPRESENTED AND IT SOVEREIGNTY UNBALANCED. b) The Security Council and Expanding Constraints Within Peacekeeping THE UNPRECEDENTED GROWTH IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS HAS MEANT UNPRECEDENTED CHALLENGES. THE UNSC IS AT A CRITICAL JUNCTURE BECAUSE OF THE SCALE OF ENGAGEMENT, DETERIORATING CONDITIONS, THE INCREASING COMPLEXITY OF MANDATES AND THE GROWING CONSTRAINTS ON OUR RESOURCES.

A NUMBER OF ITS MISSIONS FACE RISKS THAT ARE SO SIGNIFICANT THAT THERE IS A POTENTIAL FOR MISSION FAILURE, WITH TERRIBLE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE ENTIRE UNITED NATIONS. TODAY’S UN OPERATIONS DO MUCH MORE THAN JUST OBSERVE CEASE-FIRES. THEY PROVIDE SECURITY AND ACCESS SO THAT HUMANITARIAN AID CAN REACH THE SICK, THE HUNGRY, AND THE DESPERATE. THEY HELP PROTECT VULNERABLE CIVILIANS AND CREATE CONDITIONS THAT WILL ALLOW REFUGEES TO RETURN HOME. THE UN IS BEING ASKED TO TAKE ON HARDER, RISKIER OPERATIONS—OFTEN WITHOUT THE SUPPORT IT NEEDS FROM MEMBER STATES.

THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS RECENTLY GIVEN SOME VERY AMBITIOUS MANDATES TO PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN AFRICA’S VAST AND POPULOUS TERRITORIES WITH LIMITED INFRASTRUCTURE, FALTERING PEACE PROCESSES, ONGOING HOSTILITIES, AND UNCOOPERATIVE HOST GOVERNMENTS SUCH AS SOMALIA.

c) Increasing Demands and Number of Troops THE U. N. IS ALMOST CONSTANTLY ASKING ITS MEMBER STATES TO CONTRIBUTE TROOPS FOR ITS FAR- FLUNG PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS, CURRENTLY NUMBERING 16. THE NUMBER OF PEACEKEEPERS HAS RISEN TO A RECORD 130,000 — COMPARED TO 11,000 AT THE END OF THE COLD WAR — BUT THE SYSTEM IS UNDER SEVERE STRAIN. MORE THAN 100 PEACEKEEPERS HAVE DIED THIS YEAR AND DOZENS HAVE BEEN TAKEN CAPTIVE.

THE WORLD’S REFUGEE POPULATION HAS SOARED AMID A GROWING LIST OF HUMANITARIAN CRISES. THE U. N. REFUGEE AGENCY IS TRYING TO HELP OVER 51 MILLION PEOPLE FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES AND DISPLACED INSIDE OR OUTSIDE THEIR COUNTRY, THE HIGHEST FIGURE SINCE THE U. N. BEGAN COLLECTING THOSE DATA IN THE EARLY 1950S. THE U. N. HUMANITARIAN OFFICE IS TACKLING A RECORD OF FOUR TOP-LEVEL EMERGENCIES — IN AFRICA AND THE MIDEAST — AS WELL AS EBOLA. d) Unreliable Funding: Inadequate Funds and Resources RAISING MONEY IS A CONSTANT PROBLEM WITH SO MANY CRISES VYING FOR THE WORLD’S ATTENTION. MANY U. N.

AGENCIES AND HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS ARE FUNDED BY VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS, AND APPEALS AREN’T GETTING ENOUGH DONATIONS. ON MONDAY, THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM SUSPENDED A FOOD VOUCHER PROGRAM SERVING MORE THAN 1. 7 MILLION SYRIAN REFUGEES AFTER MANY DONORS FAILED TO MEET THEIR COMMITMENTS. ALL 193 MEMBER STATES CONTRIBUTE TO THE U. N. ’S REGULAR BUDGET AND A SEPARATE PEACEKEEPING BUDGET, BUT SOME COUNTRIES ARE CHRONICALLY BEHIND ON THEIR PAYMENTS. IN EARLY NOVEMBER, MEMBERS OWED ABOUT $3. 5 BILLION FOR REGULAR OPERATIONS AND PEACEKEEPING. e) Political Horse-Trading THERE IS WIDESPREAD BEHIND-THE-SCENES JOCKEYING FOR TOP JOBS IN THE U.

N. SECRETARIAT AND U. N. AGENCIES, NOT TO MENTION SEATS ON KEY BODIES LIKE THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL. EVERY COUNTRY BELONGS TO A REGIONAL GROUP THAT LOBBIES TO ENSURE IT IS WELL REPRESENTED. THERE IS OFTEN CRITICISM THAT THOSE WHO GET THE SEATS ARE NOT THE BEST QUALIFIED, SUCH AS DICTATORSHIPS ELECTED TO THE RIGHTS COUNCIL. 2. How can the above challenges be resolved/ overcome so that the UN Security Council can ensure there is complete peace and order to the world?

a) Reform of the Security Council IN RESPONSE TO THE BIASED STRUCTURE OF THE COUNCIL, THERE HAVE BEEN PROPOSITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ADVOCATING FOR NO PERMANENT MEMBERSHIP WITHIN THE ORGAN. CRITICS HAVE CRITICIZED THE PERMANENT STATES OF MISAPPLICATION OF THEIR VETO POWER AS A TOOL OF ECONOMIC AND POWER DISPLAY TOOL IN THE POLITICAL ARENA.

THE ONLY WAY TO MAKE THE UNSC MORE FOCUSED ON ITS ACTUAL MISSION AND DUTIES IS TO ABOLISH THE PERMANENT POSITIONS ALTOGETHER. THE SETTLEMENT SHOULD INSTEAD FOCUS ON DISTRIBUTING THE 15 SEATS EQUALLY AROUND WORLD REGIONS AND SUBJECTING THEM TO AN ELECTION OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THAT REGION. THE BENEFITS OF ABOLISHING THE PERMANENT SEATS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

?It would increase the legitimacy of the UNSC ?It would make the UNSC more effective in solving global security problems ?It would provide more accountability and efficiency ?It would lead to fair regional representation, as well as make it more legitimate and flexible b) Credible and Achievable Mandates for the UNSC Operations AS A RESULT OF THE EXPANDING CRISES WITHIN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS, A NUMBER OF INITIATIVES ARE UNDERWAY WITHIN THE U. N. THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS DEVOTED CONSIDERABLE ATTENTION TO THE ISSUE. MR. LE ROY, SPEAKING BEFORE THE COUNCIL IN JANUARY, POSED A SERIES OF CRITICAL QUESTIONS:

IS PEACEKEEPING BEING ASKED TO SOLVE CRISES BEYOND ITS CAPABILITIES? “THERE IS NOW A CONSTANT STRAIN BETWEEN MANDATES AND RESOURCES, AND BETWEEN EXPECTATIONS AND OUR CAPACITY TO DELIVER,” CAN THE U. N. MANAGE THE CHALLENGES AT THE HEART OF RESOLVING INTERNAL CONFLICT AND CIVIL WAR? WHERE DOES PEACEKEEPING FIT INTO THE OVERALL POLITICAL RESPONSE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO COMPLEX CRISES? PEACEKEEPING NO MATTER HOW WELL RESOURCED IS NOT SUFFICIENT WHERE PARTIES ARE NOT WILLING TO ACHIEVE PEACE, NOR CAN IT SUCCEED WITHOUT SUSTAINED POLITICAL EFFORTS ON THE PART OF COUNCIL MEMBERS.

PEACEKEEPING AND POLITICAL LEVERAGE MUST WORK TOGETHER. TO RESOLVE THIS PREDICAMENT, THE SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS ARE CONSTANTLY WORKING TO PROVIDE CREDIBLE AND ACHIEVABLE MANDATES FOR UN OPERATIONS. THEY ARE WORKING ON A PRESIDENTIAL STATEMENT THAT WOULD OUTLINE A BETTER PROCESS FOR FORMULATING PEACEKEEPING MANDATES, AND MEASURING PROGRESS IN THEIR IMPLEMENTATION. FOR EXAMPLE, THERE HAVE BEEN DEMONSTRATIONS OF COMMITMENTS TO RESIST ENDORSING UN-ACHIEVABLE OR ILL-CONCEIVED MANDATES, FOR INSTANCE BY OPPOSING, IN THE PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES, THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A UN PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN SOMALIA.

PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS ARE NOT ALWAYS THE RIGHT ANSWER; SOME SITUATIONS REQUIRE OTHER TYPES OF UN-AUTHORIZED MILITARY DEPLOYMENTS, SUCH AS REGIONAL EFFORTS OR MULTINATIONAL FORCES OPERATING UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF A LEAD NATION. EFFECTIVE MEDIATION NEEDS TO PRECEDE AND ACCOMPANY ALL PEACEKEEPING EFFORTS, IF THEY ARE TO SUCCEED. c) Presidential Statement IN REGARDS TO THE PREVAILING CATASTROPHE OF CONTRIBUTING TROOPS, THE SECURITY COUNCIL ADOPTED A PRESIDENTIAL STATEMENT NOTING AREAS WHERE IT HAS MADE PROGRESS AND WHERE FURTHER WORK IS NEEDED. THE STATEMENT PARTICULARLY HIGHLIGHTED EFFORTS BY THE COUNCIL TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION WITH THE SECRETARIAT AND TROOP- AND POLICE-CONTRIBUTING COUNTRIES, INCLUDING:

REGULAR DIALOG WITH THE SECRETARIAT, EFFORTS TO DEEPEN CONSULTATIONS WITH TROOP- AND POLICE- CONTRIBUTING COUNTRIES, AND IMPROVED MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS BY THE COUNCIL WITH BENCHMARKS. ADDITIONALLY, THE COUNCIL ALSO IDENTIFIED THE FOLLOWING AREAS WHERE FURTHER WORK IS NEEDED. ENSURING PEACEKEEPING MANDATES ARE CLEAR, CREDIBLE AND ACHIEVABLE AND MATCHED BY NEEDED RESOURCES AND ENSURING THE COUNCIL HAS BETTER INFORMATION PARTICULARLY REGARDING MILITARY CHALLENGES LIKELY TO BE FACED.

IT ALSO INCREASED THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE COUNCIL AS MANDATES ARE DRAFTED; ENSURING EARLY AND MORE MEANINGFUL ENGAGEMENT WITH TROOP- AND POLICE- CONTRIBUTING COUNTRIES; AND ENSURING ENHANCED AWARENESS IN THE COUNCIL OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF ITS DECISIONS AND THE CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD. THE COUNCIL ALSO ACKNOWLEDGED THAT FOR A U. N. PEACEKEEPING MISSION TO BE EFFECTIVE, IT MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY A POLITICAL STRATEGY. CONCLUSION IN A THUMBNAIL, THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) PEACEKEEPING IS OF UTMOST AND SIGNIFICANT IMPORTANCE IN THE PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS AROSS THE GLOBE. UN PEACEKEEPING DELIVERS REAL RESULTS IN CONFLICT ZONES.

UN PEACEKEEPERS CAN PROVIDE THE POLITICAL AND PRACTICAL REASSURANCES THAT WARRING PARTIES OFTEN NEED TO AGREE TO AND IMPLEMENT AN EFFECTIVE CEASE-FIRE. THEIR DEPLOYMENT CAN HELP LIMIT OR STOP THE ESCALATION OF ARMED CONFLICT—AND STAVE OFF WIDER WAR. NONETHELESS, MANY OF TODAY’S PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS FACE SIGNIFICANT LIMITATIONS AND CHALLENGES. TO OVERCOME THESE CHALLENGES, THE PROPOSALS PUT FORWARD SUGGEST THAT THE ORGAN SHOULD IMPLEMENT THE PRESIDENTIAL STATEMENT INAUGURATED ON 5 AUGUST 2009, IN ADDITION TO REFORMING THE SEURITY COUNCIL. THE UNITED STATES WILL PURSUE A NEW GENERATION OF PEACEKEEPING REFORMS FROM THE UN SECRETARIAT. SHE WILL SUPPORT REFORMS THAT HELP ACHIEVE ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND REALIZE COST SAVINGS;

THAT STRENGTHEN OVERSIGHT, TRANSPARENCY, AND ACCOUNTABILITY; THAT IMPROVE FIELD PERSONNEL AND PROCUREMENT SYSTEMS; THAT STRENGTHEN THE PROCESS OF MISSION PLANNING; THAT REDUCE DEPLOYMENT DELAYS; AND ENCOURAGE STRONGER MISSION LEADERSHIP; AND CLARIFY THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF ALL UN ACTORS, IN THE FIELD AND AT HEADQUARTERS. THE US ADMINISTRATION IS ALSO ENCOURAGING REFORM EFFORTS THAT ELEVATE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS AND PREVENT FRAUD AND ABUSE, INCLUDING SEXUAL EXPLOITATION.