* The United Nations (UN) is an international association of independent states that was founded by the victorious nations of World War II to keep the peace their efforts had won. Its supreme goal was to end war, but by the end of the 20th century, the organization had expanded its mandate to cover a varied agenda that included such issues as human rights, world poverty, public health, and environmental concerns. Membership was eventually extended to almost every country on Earth, growing from the initial 51 member nations in 1945 to 193 by 2012.
* After World War II it was expected that the great powers would work together to keep the peace. Instead, disagreements between the Soviet Union and the West beginning in the late 1940s created a state of international tension called the Cold War. The Soviet Union’s goal was to spread the communist system of government throughout the world. The Western nations, led by the United States, joined together to resist communist expansion. Both sides built up their weapons, which included nuclear arms. During this era the United Nations played a key role as peacemaker between East and West.
After the Cold War ended in the early 1990s with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United Nations continued to promote peace and cooperation throughout the many troubled areas of the world, adapting to circumstances that were not dreamed of by its founders. * League Of Nations was created after WWI and was first comprehensive organization which came into existence on Jan. 10 1920. With hopes that this organization may provide a forum to nations where they can settle out their disputes at International level and can prevent world from another war.
The success of League of Nations can be judge based on its handling disputes and international conflicts incidents. The authenticity of any organization can be checked by its utility of solving political and social issues. * During 1920’s League provided a useful but modest addition to international diplomacy where round of negotiations and diplomatic relations develop. Stress was made on sitting together of nations for the settlement of disputes. Security was provided to frontiers and problems of Disarmaments were solved.
But unfortunately League was helping and solving matters of minor states because of influence of BIG POWERS on world League failed to implement its will on them which gave a true picture of its contradiction of covenant. * League failed in its main object of maintaining peace in the world . Inspite of its efforts for two decades , the whole world was involved in a war in 1939. By that time , the machinery of the League Of Nations had completely broken down. The failure of League Of Nations can be attributed to many causes. They are : * 1. Absence Of Great Powers :
It was unfortunate that the covenant of the League of Nations was made a part parcel of the peace settlement. It would have been better if it had kept separate. There were many states which consider the Treaty of Versailles as a treaty of revenge, and were not prepared to ratify the same. By not ratifying the treaty , they refused to be the members of the League. The absence of the great powers from the international organization weakened her and was partly responsible for its ultimate failure. Japan, Germany and Italy also left the League and their defection must have weakened the League. * 2.
Domination Of France and England : It was felt that the League Of Nations was dominated by England and France and consequently the other states began to lose their confidence in that organization. * 3. Rise Of Dictatorship : The rise of dictatorship in Italy, Japan and Germany also weakened the chances of success of the League of Nations. As when League decided to take action against Italy on account for her aggression in Abyssinia, Italy left the League. In the wake up spreading dictatorship states continued to be the members of the League so long as their national interest were not in any way endangered and sacrificed.
* 4. Limitations Of Legal Methods : The League of Nations demonstrated the limitations of the legal methods. The League was efficient in structure and probably would have worked if there had existed a realization of a community of interest. According to Lincoln: “Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment nothing can be fail ; without it nothing can be succeed. “ * 5. Loss Of Faith In League: Small nations lost their faith in the effectiveness of The League to save them from any aggression. The principle of collective security was not applied in actual practice.
Each state decided to follow her own policy, the principle of security weakened and thus there was nothing to check the aggressive policy of Hitler. * 6. Constitutional Defect : The League of Nations failed because of certain constitutional defects. In the cases of disputes brought before the council of the League under Article 11, decisions of the council had to be unanimous in order to adjudge a nation guilty of having violated the covenant by resort to war or unjustifiable aggression, In Article 15.
If the decisions were not unanimous verdict under Article 11, the disputing parties were free to resume the hostilities after a period of 3 months. By allowing exceptions, the covenant seemed to assumed that was remained the normal solution of international disputes. * 7. Narrow Nationalism : Narrow nationalism was still the dominant among the peoples of the world. France was increasingly concerned with her national security, while Great Britain considered that problem less urgent than promoting commerce by fostering international trade.
Japan intoxicated by her emergence as a world power, while Italy was desperate to redress her damage . Germany was indulged to retain her national prestige (kudos, cachet, status, reputation) even at the cost of an aggressive military adventure. * 8. Lack Of Mutual Co-Operation : The member of the league lack mutual co-operation which is always essential for the success of an organization. For France the League was an instrument for providing her security from Germany. On the other hand Great Britain wanted League protecting her imperialist interest. Hitler found League a great hurdle on the way of rise of Germany.
* 9. Separate Lines Of Thoughts : The League was the offspring of a marriage of two separate lines of thoughts. In one of these which were developed my Mr. Taft and others in the U. S. The stress was on organized forces. There has to be “League of enforced peace” On the other hand the British attitude was extremely hesitant in its approach to the nation os enforced peace. * 10. Manchurian Crisis : On the night of Sep. 18-19, 1931 some Japanese soldiers making an attempt to blow off the railway line near Mukdan . Japan took full advantage of this minor incident and on the 18th Sep.
1931 She invaded Manchuria and also occupied all Japanese cities north of Mukdan. League of Nations failed to implement sanctions on Japan and on March 27 , 1933 Japan decided to withdraw her membership of League of Nation. * According to most of the thinkers, existence of League Of Nations was at wrong time . Then, all the nations ware indulge in the concept of narrow nationalism and sovereignty. Situation would have been much more different had except the concept of Internationalism. It is wrong to believe League Of Nations done nothing , it paved the way of United Nations Organizations.
“It was not League Of Nations but Nations Of League that failed . “ * WORLD WAR (II): . World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that was underway by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved a vast majority of the world’s nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria) and the Axis (U. S. , Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia).
It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units. In a state of “total war”, the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it resulted in 50 million to over 73 million fatalities.
These deaths make World War II by far the deadliest conflict in all of human history. The onset of World War II showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war. The League lasted for 27 years. The United Nations(UN) replaced it after the end of the war and inherited a number of agencies and organizations founded by the League. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.
World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts. The great powers that were the victors of the war—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and France—became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. * In 1941, during World War II, United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met secretly for five days in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Newfoundland.
The purpose of their meeting was to draft a statement outlining a plan for a global organization that would help oversee international affairs and maintain peace and security. At the conclusion of their talks, they issued the Atlantic Charter. The charter looked forward to abandoning the use of force and to the establishment of a permanent system of general security. In 1942 representatives of 26 countries, calling themselves the United Nations, signed a pledge (vow, oath, promise) in Washington, D. C. , to defeat the Axis Powers. * On June 26 the United Nations Charter was completed, signed, and sent to the member nations for ratification.
. By Oct. 24, 1945, the required number of nations had ratified the charter and the United Nations officially came into existence. * The preamble of the United Nations Charter sets forth the aims of the organization. . The charter provides, however, that “all other peace-loving states” can become members on the recommendation of the Security Council if approved by a two-thirds vote of the General Assembly. The Assembly, on recommendation of the Security Council, can expel a member that has persistently violated the principles of the charter.
Amendments to the charter require a vote of two thirds of all the members of the General Assembly. Following Assembly approval, the amendments ratified by two thirds of the member states, including all five permanent members of the Security Council. * . According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security: security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.
The United Nations is not a world government and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international confects and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us. At the UN, all the member states-large and small, rich and poor, with differing political views and social systems has a voice and a vote in this process. * UN Charter established the six principal departments, which were called organs. The Six Basic Organs: i. The General Assembly: It is the largest of the six basic organs and great deliberative body of the United Nations.
It is linked with all the other organs and it elects their membership. It may discuss any subject within the scope of the charter, except those disputes that are being dealt with by the Security Council. After voting, it may forward its recommendations to other organs or to member governments. All member states are represented in the Assembly. Each state may have up to five representatives but only one vote. Decisions on important questions require a two-thirds majority of members present and voting. A simple majority of those voting decides other questions. ii.
The Security Council: Maintaining world peace and security is the responsibility of the Security Council. Every member of the United Nations is pledged to accept and carry out the Council’s decisions. The Council is set up to function continuously; thus, a representative of each of its members must be present at all times at UN headquarters. A president, chosen from among the Council members, heads the Council. This presidency changes monthly. The Security Council has 15 members. Five nations, known collectively as the Big Five—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—have permanent seats.
(Russia’s seat was held by the Soviet Union until that country’s break-up in 1991. ) Of the other 10 seats, five are elected each year by the General Assembly for two-year terms; five retire each year. Each member has one vote. On all routine (procedural) matters, approval requires nine “yes” votes. On all other matters, the nine “yes” votes must include the votes of all five permanent members. Thus, each of the Big Five has a veto power. Any one of them can block even the discussion of an action of which it disapproves. A party to a dispute, however, must abstain from voting.
iii. The International Court of Justice:The International Court of Justice, sometimes also called the World Court, is the supreme court of the United Nations. Its permanent seat is in The Netherlands at The Hague. The court consists of 15 judges. The judges serve for nine years and are eligible for reelection. iv. The Economic and Social Council: The constructive tasks of peace achieving higher standards of living, improving health and education, and promoting respect for human rights and freedoms throughout the world are the responsibility of the Economic and Social Council.
It works under the authority of the General Assembly and reports to the Assembly. The Council has 54 members, each of whom is elected to a three-year term. v. The Secretariat: The UN Secretariat carries on the day-to-day business of the United Nations and assists all the other organs. At its head is the secretary-general, the chief administrative officer and spokesperson of the United Nations. The secretary-general embodies the ideals of the United Nations, drawing upon his or her personal integrity to prevent international disputes from escalating and helping to facilitate the work of the organization as needed.
vi. The Trusteeship Council: The original responsibility of the Trusteeship Council was to protect the interests of people who lived in trust territories and to lead them toward self-government * In addition to sharing the risks of maintaining peace and security, the member states of the UN share in the financial burden of maintaining the organization. Each member nation contributes to the main budget and to the budget of each agency to which it belongs.
The scale of contributions, based partly on ability to pay, is set by the General Assembly. Some states pay less than half of 1 percent of the budget. The largest contributors in the early 21st century were the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. * The first years of the UN sorely tested the organization’s power as conflict after conflict arose in different areas of the world, all requiring intervention and mediation by an outside body.
While in some cases, the UN was not able to resolve issues completely or end military conflicts. * The Assembly addressed another simmering dispute by creating the Disarmament Commission in 1952. Consisting of the members of the Security Council and Canada, this commission was created to prepare proposals that would regulate, limit, and balance reduction of all armed forces and armaments; eliminate all weapons of mass destruction; and ensure international control and use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes only.
* After five years of effort and little progress, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in 1957 to promote the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The Soviet Union was among the countries that approved the IAEA’s formation. * In many instances, UN peacekeeping forces were deployed to ensure cooperation between hostile parties while UN mediators worked with national leaders to resolve problems. Peacekeepers also were used to monitor cease-fires and to defuse local conflicts. * Social Welfare and Human Rights:
The social welfare program of the United Nations embraces a wide variety of activities. Its agencies and commissions have given aid to many thousands of refugees and cared for needy children in many countries. These arms of the United Nations are concerned also with education, health, forced labor and slavery, equal rights for women, and the protection of minorities. To promote and encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedom, the General Assembly issued on Dec. 10, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In 1950, December 10 was proclaimed Human Rights Day. * The United Nations Security Council “power of veto” refers to the veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia,United Kingdom, and United States), enabling them to prevent the adoption of any “substantive” draft Council resolution, regardless of the level of international support for the draft. The veto is exercised when any permanent member the so-called “P5” casts a “negative” vote on a “substantive” draft resolution.
Abstention or absence from the vote by a permanent member does not prevent a draft resolution from being adopted. This idea was not new as it was derived from the League of Nations. * Criticism on United Nations * Addresses only the strategic interests and political motives of the permanent members * the Security Council’s ineffectiveness and irrelevance * Illogical, unjust and completely undemocratic structure and mechanism of UN * powers of nuclear club is unchecked.
* Role of Elicit nations * Membership in the UN Security Council should be expanded and include non-nuclear powers * Veto power controversy * powerful Security Council system does not have distinctions between the legislative, executive, and judiciary branches * Oil-for-Food Programme scandal * Peacekeeping child sexual abuse scandal * In their desire to divert the United Nations from considering problems relating to the strengthening of international security, and to “depoliticise” its activities, the Western powers are doing their utmost to avoid discussion on major political issues in the world body, fearing its condemnation.
* At the present stage, making the UN more effective depends on a fuller utilization of the immense potentialities of the world body, potentialities which are embodied in its Charter and solemnly reaffirmed in the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, and several other recently adopted major UN decisions.
Strict compliance with the UN Charter, with Security Council resolutions and constructive decisions adopted by other UN bodies is an indispensable condition for the successful functioning of the international organisation. In its statement on the UN Charter the Soviet government pointed out: “All UN member states are in duty bound to concentrate their efforts and attention not on questions of reviewing the Charter but on its rigorous and consistent fulfillment.
It is this course that meets the fundamental interests of the peoples, as it broadens the capacity of the United Nations to promote the consolidation of detente, making it stable and irreversible, and the strengthening of world peace. ” * The Soviet Union and the other socialist countries are determined to uphold the noble purposes and principles of the UN Charter, to preserve and consolidate world peace.
A good deal has been done through the joint efforts of the socialist states to improve the international climate, and they are determined to strive for international detente being increasingly given concrete form, becoming deeper and broader, and extending to all areas of the world. This consistent line taken by socialism is of great importance in promoting the prestige and role of the United Nations in international affairs and improving, on the basis of the Charter, its political organizational work to maintain international peace and develop the peaceful cooperation of the world’s nations.