1. YBhg Dato,ladies and gentlemen. It is our pleasure to share some of our knowledge and experiences with you on United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and to highlight some of Malaysia’s involvement in these operations this morning. AIM 2. To present an overview of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO) and highlighting Malaysia’s involvement in these operations SCOPE 3. This presentation will dwell on the following agendas in brief: a. The UN System b. UN Peace and Security Spectrum c. UNPKO d.
Malaysia’s Involvement THE UN SYSTEM 4. The name, “United Nations” — coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt — was first used in the “Declaration by United Nations” of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. 5. After the Second World War, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter.
Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States, in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. 6. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 — when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other signatories.
United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. 7. The UN has 193 sovereign States as its members. The United Nations is the instrument of all its Member States, which discuss common problems and make decisions by voting on major issues. The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are: a. To maintain international peace and security b. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples c.
To cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems, and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedom d. To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations in attaining these common ends 8. The UN is an impartial organization, in which States from all around the world are equal Members. The impartiality and universality of the United Nations are key elements of its legitimacy.
It is not necessary for all nations to be members of the UN. Based on a sovereign decision, a nation may opt to not be a member of the UN. An example is Switzerland, which became a member of the UN only in 2002. 9. The Charter also establishes an institutional framework that allows international cooperation in maintaining peace and harmony. Thus the UN is not a monolithic organization, it is the sum of all its parts. The UN has six main organs, namely: the Security Council, General Assembly, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice, Economic and Social Council, and last but not least, the Secretariat.
It is also a composition of several Programmes and Funds, Specialized Agencies and organizations where each and every single entity plays important role. While principal organs act on political basis most of its funds, agencies and programmes are apolitical in nature especially when comes to humanitarian assistance projects. 10. (Source GPOI slide) The UN has a very good system that may handle all issues independently or in concert. With the provision setforth in the Charter the UN is able to be a very effective and efficient international organisation in this arnachic world.
Thus far as a political organization the UN had managed to perform a tremendous effort in dealing with international issues especially in maintaining global peace and security. UN PEACE AND SECURITY SPECTRUM 10. The Charter allows the UN to deal with international security issues when necessary. One thing that we should remember is that the UN will intervene in any domestic problems when it thinks the issues may lead to international jeopardy. The domestic problems remain national issues and the responsibility of each government unless there is a request for the UN to intervene.
The UN will conduct any of the activities such as conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace-enforcement or peace-building in its quest to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council is the authorized organs to handle these issues. 11. The Charter is the important legal document for the UN to carry out its works. However for maintaining peace and security Chapters 6, 7 and 8 are three fundamental chapters used by the UN. 12. Chapter 6 – Pacific Settlement of Disputes. This chapter provides for the settlement of disputes by a variety of peaceful measures.
Article 33 of the UN Charter states: “The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, meditation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means. ” 13. Chapter 7 – Action With Respect To Threats To The Peace, Breaches of The Peace, And Acts of Aggression.
Chapter 7 authorises whatever actions “…as may be necessary to restore or maintain international peace and security” (Article 42). Historically, the UN has not had the capacity to conduct large-scale peace enforcement missions, such as the Korean War or the Gulf War. Such operations have been delegated to Coalitions of the Willing. While Chapter 7 allows force to be used, it does not actively instruct that force is to be used. One should always remember that the aim of a Chapter 7 enforcement is ultimately to “promote” consent, in order to move into a Chapter 6 operation.
14. The less force that is used to achieve this, the easier would be the follow-on mission. Therefore, force should be used as the last resort, and Chapter 7 provides options from the strategic to tactical level and from the use of sanctions to the use of force on the ground. These tools can be used in a complementary manner, with the overall aim of compelling compliance and promoting consent. 15. In the UN context, Peacekeeping is about the minimal use of force. It’s not that force must not be used, but how to accomplish the most with minimising force.
Chapter 7 allows for a more robust force in environments that need it. 16. Chapter 8 – Regional Arrangements. The coalitions of the willing are an alliance of member states authorised under Chapter 7 of the Charter. By stating that “the Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilise such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority,” Article 53 of Chapter 7 authorises agencies to deal with matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security, provided that their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the UN. 17.
As shown in the diagram, there is no clear sequence or chronological order, in which different peaceful or coercive measures are used, although conflict prevention, peacemaking and — if used — peace enforcement do tend to precede peacekeeping. When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council’s first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible. The Council usually issues cease-fire directives, which prevent wider hostilities. It also sends United Nations peacekeeping forces to help reduce tensions in troubled areas keep opposing forces apart and create conditions of calm, in which peaceful settlements may be sought.
The Council may also decide on enforcement measures, economic sanctions (such as trade embargoes) or collective military action. 18. The legal basis for the Security Council’s power to investigate and take, peaceful or coercive measures, is in Chapters 6 and 7 of the UN Charter as mentioned earlier. There is a range of peaceful and coercive measures that the Security Council can authorise in cases of conflict. Peacekeeping is only one of those activities, and is often linked to — or overlaps with — conflict prevention, peacemaking, peace enforcement or peacebuilding.
19. While United Nations peacekeeping operations are, in principle, deployed to support the implementation of a cease-fire or peace agreement, they are often required to play an active role in peacemaking efforts and may also be involved in early peacebuilding activities. Therefore, it is important for us to understand how these activities are inter-related because peacekeeping work will also impact on conflict prevention, peacemaking and peacebuilding efforts. UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS 20.
United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) began in 1948 when the Security Council authorized the deployment of UN military observers to the Middle East. The mission's role was to monitor the Armistice Agreement between Israel and its Arab neighbours – an operations which became known as the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO). PKO is a technique and an interim measures designed to preserve the peace where fighting has ended, and to assist in implementing the peace agreement.
It may involve mostly military techniques of observing cease-fires or complex multidimensional models involving military, civilian and police. 21. Normally the UN peacekeeping operations are deployed in situations, where the main parties to a conflict have illustrated their commitment to a cease-fire or a peace process (peace to keep), and have consented to working with the United Nations in laying the foundations for sustainable peace (consent) and the situation where the peacekeepers to work is relatively benign.
22. Mandate by UNSC and translated into specific tasks for mission. 23. The Security Council does not necessarily refer to a specific Chapter of the UN Charter when authorising a UN peacekeeping operation. In fact, the Security Council has never explicitly invoked Chapter 6 in any resolution authorising a UN peacekeeping operation. In recent years, the Security Council has begun to adopt the practice of referring to Chapter 7 of the UN Charter in some resolutions authorising UN peacekeeping operations.
We should consider this reference to Chapter 7 as a sign of the political commitment of the Security Council, and as reminder to UN Member States and the parties to the conflict that Security Council resolutions are binding. 24. Main Bodies in Peacekeeping. As far as peacekeeping operations are concerned there are two principal organs that are essential in implementing, assisting and monitoring the conduct of the operations. Authorization comes from SC, budget prepared and consolidated by GA and monitoring and supervising missions by Secretariat through its special departments such as DPKO and DFS.
25. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO): The Secretary-General gives responsibility for the executive direction and administration of all UN peacekeeping operations to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations (“USG DPKO. ”) 26. Through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in New York, the USG DPKO: a. Directs and controls UN peacekeeping operations b. Develops policies and operational guidelines based on Security Council resolutions (e. g. , mission mandates) c. Prepares reports from the Secretary-General to the Security Council on each peacekeeping operation.
The report includes appropriate observations and recommendations. d. Advises the Secretary-General on all matters related to the planning, establishment and conduct of UN peacekeeping operations 27. On behalf of the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Field Support (USG DFS) are responsible for delivering dedicated support to UN field operations, including peacekeeping operations and special political missions. Specifically, this includes: personnel, finance, procurement (purchasing), logistical, communications, information technology, and other administrative and general management issues.
28. Traditional and Multidimensional PKO. Over the years, peacekeeping has evolved from the traditional — primarily military — model of observing cease-fires and the separation of forces after interstate wars, to incorporating a complex, multidimensional model of many elements — military, police and civilian — such as military contingents, military observers, individual UN police officers, Formed Police Units, political affairs officers, child protection officers, civil affairs officers, and human rights officers, etc.
In the early years since 1948 until the end of Cold War in 1989 most missions were traditional where the main roles played by military in form of Military Observers and light force. Small groups of police and civilian were deployed to assist military in performing their observation and supervising tasks. Mostly these traditional PKOs led by Military Force Commander and their tasks were to ensure cease fire agreement between two fighting nations were observed. So in other word traditional PKO mostly carried out to assist and restore peace in an inter conflict situation.
The first two peacekeeping operations deployed by the UN were the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) and the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). Both of these missions, which continue operating to this day, exemplified the observation and monitoring type of operation and had authorized strengths in the low hundreds. 29. With the end of the Cold War, the strategic context for UN Peacekeeping changed dramatically. The UN shifted and expanded its field operations from “traditional” missions involving generally observational tasks performed by military personnel to complex “multidimensional” enterprises.
These multidimensional missions were designed to ensure the implementation of comprehensive peace agreements and assist in laying the foundations for sustainable peace. Inter conflict became less and the UN had been confronted with new challenges of intra conflicts. In these new types of conflict military alone was not sufficient to handle complex emergency and humanitarian crises. Therefore there was a need to deploy a combination of military, police and civilians to deal with these complex situations. 30.
Multidimensional PKO comprises of a bigger force and big number of military, police and civilians as compared to traditional PKO and is led by Special Representative to Secretary General (SRSG) a civilian appointed by SG. 31. Generic Structure. This diagram illustrates the generic structure of a multidimensional PKO. Some of the components may not be there in some missions because their present based on the need of that specific mission. 32. Lead by : HOM – Head of Mission, SRSG – Special Representative of the Secretary-General, it has two DSRSG – (1) Deputy SRSG, DSRSG Deputy HOM looks after the general operations of the mission.
DSRSG RC/HC is typically the senior UN official residing in the country – in most cases, the Head of UNDP. His/her job is to coordinate the humanitarian effort being undertaken by the UN agencies in pink boxes – all of those reports to their own headquarters, not the mission. 33. Chief of Staff is a coordinator of mission effort, who works for the HOM – he/she is not authorised in the UN sense, so cannot task other components. Military observers are placed under the control of the Force Commander. 34. Under HoM are HOMC, HOPC and DMS that are responsible to assist HoM in military operations, policing and logistical aspects respectively.
(JOC – Joint Operations Centre, JMAC – Joint Mission Analysis Cell, DDR – Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration, HOPC – Head of Police Component, HOMC – Head of Military Component, OPCON – operational control, UNDP – United Nations Development Programme, OCHA – Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees, WFP – World Food Programme, WHO – World Health Organization, UNICEF – International Children‘s Fund, OHCHR – Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and NGO – Nongovernment Organizations).
35. Peacekeeping has proven to be one of the most effective tools available to the UN to assist host countries navigate the difficult path from conflict to peace. Peacekeeping has unique strengths, including legitimacy, burden sharing, and an ability to deploy and sustain troops and police from around the globe, integrating them with civilian peacekeepers to advance multidimensional mandates. 36. UN Peacekeepers provide security and the political and peacebuilding support to help countries make the difficult, early transition from conflict to peace.
Today's multidimensional peacekeeping operations are called upon not only to maintain peace and security, but also to facilitate the political process, protect civilian, assist in the DDR of former combatants; support the organization of elections, protect and promote human rights and assist in restoring the rule of law. MALAYSIA’S INVOLVEMENT 37. YBhg Dato, ladies and gemtlemen. As you all already knew Malaysia’s first involvement with UN PKO was at the United Nations Operation in Congo (UNOC) from 1960 – 1963.
A number of 3,500 personnel were involved in the mission. To date we have been participating in 9 PKO involving troops, 9 PKO Involving staff and 8 PKO involving military observers/arm monitors. Our involvement in Afghanistan now, were only for the supporting role ie providing medical aids and it is not for the combat role. For the deployment in UNIFIL, and in all UN PKO that we took part, the structures are of tactical level and never of any operational or strategic level. 38.
As for now total of 186 offrs and 841 either as military observers, arms monitor, staff or as part of troops/contingent are currently serving under the UN in various UN PKO missions around the globe. 39. Video clip. CONCLUSION 40. YBhg Dato, ladies and gentlemen. The video shown mark the end of my presentation. Hopefully our short presentation has given you some insight on the UNPKO and Malaysia’s involvement in these operations. Now I shall hand over the floor to Col Sardon the MPTC commandant for Q & A session. Thank you.