United Nations – Peace

1. One of the greatest challenges to the development of mankind has been conflicts. Wherever individuals or groups come together, there is bound to be different ideas, goals and aspirations. The inability to resolve these differences into an acceptable common goal often degenerate into different form of conflicts. At all levels of human existence, many conflicts have had devastating effects. In a bid to ensure stable global development, several conflict resolution mechanisms have been explored. One of such is the establishment of the United Nations (UN) after the World War 2. 2.

The UN Charter promises ‘to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war’. 1 Although the Charter makes no explicit mention of peacekeeping as a specific UN activity, the UN Security Council (UNSC) was invested with the collective power to take collective action under Article 24 of the UN Charter. This states that ‘in order to ensure prompt and effective action by the UN, the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security’ lies with the UNSC. 2 3. Ghana’s commitment to peacekeeping could be traced to her independence in 1957 and the inspiring Pan-African ideals of the late President Kwame Nkrumah.

He directed the fledgling nation’s foreign policy towards multilateralism, in pursuit of peace and international security. As a giant of the African liberation struggle, President Nkrumah was quick to respond to the call of the UN when it launched the first African peacekeeping mission in the Congo in the early 1960s. This experience set the precedence for Ghana’s participation in many UN missions that were to follow. Ghana’s commitment to the principles of the UN has assisted in providing the rationale and doctrinal basis for peacekeeping. 4.

The end of the Cold War precipitated a dramatic shift in UN peacekeeping. Freed from bipolarization, the UNSC established larger and more complex UN peacekeeping missions, often to help implement comprehensive peace agreements between protagonists in intra-state conflicts. Furthermore peacekeeping came to involve more non-military elements to ensure sustainability. The UN intensified its attempts to serve as an effective instrument to reduce and perhaps prevent violent conflict within the international system. 3 Peacekeeping therefore, provided Ghana an avenue to enhance the country’s image and stature.

This is through manifesting its unfaltering commitment to the UN issues of peace and security, and to humanitarian causes. Over the years, a constructive peacekeeping role has brought Ghana wide recognition and international visibility. This has enhanced its multilateral and bilateral ties, which help to positively reflect Ghana’s foreign policy issues and goals. 5. On the basis of its firm belief in the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, Ghana has actively participated in UN peacekeeping efforts in different parts of the world. Since 1960, Ghana has participated in 29 missions.

Today, amongst the over 100 personnel-contributing countries, Ghana ranks sixth, by making a total contribution of 2932 personnel (troop and police) to UN missions. 4 Overtime more than 100 Ghanaian soldiers have perished in their efforts to maintain peace in the world. 6. It is in view of this that it has become necessary to appraise the active peacekeeping role that Ghana has played. The purpose of this paper is to trace the altruistic motivations and national interest compulsions that propel Ghana toward active participation in peacekeeping operations.

The paper will discuss Ghana’s roles in peacekeeping, benefits of peacekeeping to the nation and related issues of national concern. Thereafter, constraints of the Ghana Armed Forces and the possible future of Ghana Armed Forces in peacekeeping will be discussed. AIM 7. The aim of this paper is to analyze the contributions of Ghana Armed Forces to UN peacekeeping operations with a view to making recommendations. GHANA’S ROLES IN PEACEKEEPING 8. Ghana has been perceived by the UN as one of the mover nations towards a non-violent world.

True to her beliefs, Ghana has used her military strength to back her words at the UN and other international assignment. Several Ghanaian generals have also led military contingents in UN operations, serving with bravery, skill and professionalism. 5 9. In UN missions, Ghana’s peacekeepers have performed several roles such as military patrols, civil police officers and electoral observers. Also they have served as de-miners, ceasefire monitors, humanitarian aid workers and even fighting forces against rebel armies.

Ghanaian men and women have not only made vital contributions to peacekeeping as such, they have also inspired others to participate. Today, such leadership is more important than ever. 10. UN Peacekeeping is in constant evolution. In generational terms, earlier peacekeeping activities of observing, verifying ceasefires and acting as neutral buffers between two antagonist parties is classified as ‘first generation’ or ‘classical peacekeeping’. Ghana participated in two of such operations in the Congo, (ONUC 1960), Yemen (UNYOM 1964).

11. In the post-Cold War period, a global debate surfaced about centrality of the UN in the international security system and its peacekeeping activities changed extensively in response to the demands put on it. ‘Second generation’ peacekeeping began in the post-Cold War transitional period, as multifunctional operations. They are launched to bring about a negotiated settlement of complex conflicts and facilitate peaceful transition of political processes through elections in the presence of UN peacekeepers in recipient countries. 6 12.

Ghana participated in a number of second-generation peacekeeping operations namely: UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC 1992), UN Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM 1991). Ghana peacekeepers became involved in multidimensional activities such as monitoring accords and settlements, disarmament and demobilization of combatants. 7 Others include verifying that parties to the conflict respect human rights commitments and bringing about reforms needed to tackle the root cause of the civil war. Furthermore, establishing a new policing system as well as monitoring and conducting free and fair elections.

13. Along the expanded role and responsibilities of the ‘second-generation’ peacekeeping missions came ‘third-generation’ missions. This concentrated largely on enforcement operations under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. The UN peacekeeping forces had to respond to complex emergencies which arose out of primordial and ethnic tensions, collapse of the economic and state infrastructure. These in turn resulted in humanitarian disasters, such as genocide, ethnic cleansing and mass displacement of people – as was the case in the early 1990s in Somalia, Bosnia and Rwanda.

8 14. In Somalia, Bosnia and Rwanda cases, UN was compelled to act and intervene on humanitarian grounds, without the consent of the parties involved in the conflicts. This radically altered the threats faced by the peacekeepers and added new dimensions to their roles and responsibilities, which placed enormous political and financial strain on the UN. The established principles of peacekeeping roles such as consent, neutrality, impartiality and use of force only in self-defence, all became hotly contested.

Some case studies show the complexities the UN peacekeeping forces have faced and how Ghanaian peacekeeping forces have dealt with such situations. 15. Since Ghana has participated in 29 missions, it is not possible to examine them all in this study. However, missions which have impacted on Ghana’s scope and quality of peacekeeping have significantly altered Ghana’s standing in the international scene are briefly discussed. UNITED NATIONS TRANSITIONAL AUTHORITY IN CAMBODIA: 1992 – 1993 16. Ghana’s military and police presence was proudly advertised in the United

Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). A total of 3,359 soldiers and 283 police personnel from Ghana were among the large number of international messengers of peace who laid to rest the chronic military confusion in Cambodia. 9 The UNTAC operation lasted two years, 1992-93. After a long running civil war ignited by external interventions, an international conference in Paris designed a peace accord on 23rd October 1991 that was accepted by the four warring parties. Nineteen other countries that appeared to have a stake in the conflict also signed the agreement. 17.

Before the establishment of UNTAC, an exploratory peace mission known as the United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) was put in place. UNTAC took over from UNAMIC on 15th March 1992. UNTAC role spanned various aspects of peace making: human rights, electoral assistance, military and civil administration. Others include civilian police, repatriation and rehabilitation. 10The expanded roles of UNTAC brought greater challenges for the peacekeepers. 18. The military component of the operation entailed stabilizing security and building confidence among the warring parties.

Soldiers also had to accompany electoral officials to voter registration centres. UNTAC soldiers, in addition, had to involve themselves in the daunting task of mine clearance and at the same time teach the locals how to clear mines. About 37,000 mines and other unexploded ordnance were destroyed. Some 2,300 Cambodians were trained in mine clearing techniques. 19. The peacekeepers also assisted in civilian administration, exercising full control over five key areas including issuance of passports and visas. The Ghanaian contingents were mainly involved in de-mining, disarmament and demobilization of Cambodia’s warring factions.

They also provided security to the civil administration, supervised the maintenance of ceasefire agreements and acted as liaison between warring factions. 20. At its peak, UNTAC involved 22,000 civilian and military personnel, the largest combined civil military UN mission since ONUC. 11Ghanaian soldiers and police effectively contributed to bringing political and military coalition government to Cambodia. 21. The military participation in UNTAC provided Ghana with a proverbial foot in the door into the higher echelons of the UN.

That participation exposed the Ghanaian military personnel to modern and state-of-the-art machinery, equipment and communication systems. Also, the cohesive planning of military patrols and various facets of greater inter-operational ability. UNITED NATIONS ASSISTANCE MISSION FOR RWANDA: 1993 – 1996 22. No region in Africa presents staggering and horrifying images of the clash between nationalism and ethnicity than the former German turned Belgian colonies of Rwanda and Burundi. In April 1994, Rwanda experienced the bloodiest ethnic cleansing in recent history.

12 23. In October 1993, the UN, under the OAU – brokered Arusha Agreement, created United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR). UNAMIR was to provide security for the smooth implementation of the accord. Ghana featured prominently in UNAMIR, contributing more than half of the total of troops that participated in the operation. Out of the 5,200 soldiers that served in UNAMIR, Ghana’s contribution was 2,741. 24. The UNAMIR force was initially created out of the OAU’s Neutral Military observer Group and a contingent from Tunisia.

It was later joined by troops from Ghana and other countries. UNAMIR became one of the most ill – fated peace missions that the UN had undertaken. The operation was hindered by lack of a clear mandate and hamstrung by lack of resources. Brigadier Henry Kwami Anyidoho of Ghana, who was Deputy Force Commander of UNAMIR explained in his book, Guns Over Kigali, “Right from the beginning of the mission, UNAMIR was beset with logistic problems. Apart from Belgium, all the contingents came from developing countries with weak logistic bases at home.

” In addition, the mission had a weak and uncooperative administrative support system, and the troops and staff officers faced feeding problems. 25. Despite these difficulties, the Ghanaian contingent displayed diplomatic soldiering of the highest standard. When the guns roared over Kigali and the world deserted Rwanda, Ghana was the only country that kept faith with the Rwandans: Belgium, Tunisia and Bangladesh – all had withdrawn their contingents. But Ghana maintained a contingent of 456 troops. 26. Ghana’s contingent was mainly stationed at the airport, one of the most dangerous spots in Kigali.

The troops often carried out escort duties for visitors, aid to the injured, relief convoys for displaced people and even mass burials of genocide victims. These duties were at problem – free. On many occasions, the Ghanaian soldiers were fired upon. 27. Ghana’s battalion (GHANBATT) also had a small medical team that treated the sick and wounded. This Ghanaian medical detachment, together with the International Committee for the Red Cross and Medecins sans Frontieres, were the only medical establishments. They cared for the sick and wounded throughout the country during the war.

13 28. Rwanda highlights the complexities and risks faced by the third generation peacekeeping. It established Ghanaian troops as reliable forces who fulfilled the mandate given to them and completed the mission successfully. The high-risk complexities of intra-state conflicts such as Rwanda, underline the extraordinary demands placed on UN peacekeepers. That is, working in a climate of continuing armed conflict one increasingly face the risk of lethal arms in the hands of rebel factions. Moreover, these rebels have little respect for UN principles and safety of peacekeepers.

BENEFITS OF PEACEKEEPING TO THE NATION 29. One may ask what peacekeeping in Lebanon and other such areas have got to do with our national development. The answer has already been stated. In this age of interdependence, contributing to reduce global tension stimulates global development. At present the world’s annual military expenditures are 40 times more, than the total volume of economic aid given to Third World countries including Ghana. When there is peace in all the regions, expenditure on arms would reduce to the minimum and the developed counties might even cancel our debts or treat them as grants.

We would therefore have more resources for our development. 14 30. The military-operational benefits gained by participation in the UN peacekeeping mission further motivated Ghana to seek the role of an active peacekeeping nation. Currently, Pakistan ranks highest among the top 10 contributors to UN missions. 15She is followed by Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Jordan, Ghana, Uruguay, Nigeria, South Africa, Italy and France. Of these countries the top 8 are developing nations which need to maintain their standing armies at optimal levels to ensure operational readiness.

A UN peacekeeping mission is a complex endeavour in which multiple national forces of varying experiences and expertise cooperate and coordinate to achieve a given mandate. A total of 119 countries are contributing more than 83,328 personnel to UN operations as at August 2007. 31. Participation in a complex multinational UN mission provides Ghana’s forces with an opportunity to be exposed to operational procedures of other forces. They learn new techniques of planning, logistics and communication skills.

Furthermore, they get to know of other command and control structures, methods of coordination and use state of the art weaponry and machinery. This military training and exposure has proved to be invaluable to the Ghana Armed Forces. 16 32. In order to motivate troops to serve in a foreign country under risky and volatile conditions, a financial incentive is essential. According to the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) at the UN, countries volunteering uniformed personnel to peacekeeping operations are reimbursed monthly by the UN at a flat rate of little over $ US 1,000 per soldier.

In addition, peacekeeping soldiers are paid by the government according to the national salary policy. The UN also reimburses countries for equipment. 17 A rough estimate of the total sum that accrue to Ghana through her 2,932 personnel serving in UN peacekeeping missions is about $ US 2,932,000 per month. See Annex A for more details on Ghana’s contribution to peacekeeping operations. This amount is without the inclusion of national service charges, national remuneration of soldiers and that for the equipments. The country therefore generates substantial foreign earnings for its national developmental commitments.

RELATED ISSUES OF NATIONAL CONCERN 33. According to Mr Jean-Marie Guehenno, Under-Secretary General of UN Peacekeeping Operations, there is increased demand of expansion of peacekeeping operations throughout the world. However, many of the rich countries of the North have re-oriented their budgets to address issues and concerns related to terrorism. Consequently, monetary contributions and commitment to UN peacekeeping operations have plummeted across the world. 18 34. Amidst these developments, Ghana however has not wavered in its support for issues of humanitarian concern worldwide, without any consideration for region, race or religion.

It remains committed to the UN and its peacekeeping activities as one of its largest troop’s contributor. Over the years, it has been involved in the successful completion of UN missions in Rwanda (UNAMIR 2741 soldiers), Cambodia (UNTAC 3359 soldiers) and Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL 4512 soldiers). The former UN Secretary General, Mr Kofi Annan, during his visit to Ghana, remarked that ‘this contribution is highly valued, and the UN looks towards Ghana for continued commitment to its peacekeeping operations’. 19 35.

Ghana’s active participation in peacekeeping operations and its role is impeded by issues, which need to be evaluated and highlighted. Some of the pressing ones have been discussed below. LACK OF A NATIONAL DOCTRINE OF PEACEKEEPING 36. Over the years, Ghana’s foreign policy and consequently its peacekeeping activities have been directed by its ideological commitment to the principles of multilateralism and internationalism as enunciated by Dr Kwame Nkrumah. However, Ghana has not put in place fundamental basis on which to develop a national doctrine to respond to the changing realities.

37. The international system is in constant state of change and peacekeeping tasks perforce reflect these transformations. Role and responsibilities of peacekeepers have drastically expanded in scale and scope due to the change in the nature of conflicts and the UN’s response to them. Issues of intra-state warfare, peace-enforcement participation in high-risk volatile theatres of operation and pre-emptive peacekeeping add to the complexities of present-day peacekeeping activities. 38. It is imperative for Ghana to respond to these global changes in an appropriate manner.

Considering the active role that Ghana has played in UN peacekeeping operations and how it has benefited Ghana’s foreign and military policy, it is time to buttress them with a national doctrine of peacekeeping. The doctrine should set political, practical and operational parameters in cognisance of Ghana’s international standing and should direct its future peacekeeping directions. 39. Countries like the US, Britain and France have evolved national doctrines for peacekeeping. Britain’s doctrine is a comprehensive document, which has been issued as an Army Field Manual entitled ‘Wider Peacekeeping’.

Similarly, Ghana needs to formulate a national doctrine of peacekeeping, which responds to the realities of today and prepares it for possibilities of tomorrow in light of its national interest. WEAK MECHAMISMS FOR DECIDING PARTICIPATION IN PEACEKEEPING OPERARTIONS 40. A lack of a national doctrine confounds the decision-making through which participation in peacekeeping missions is undertaken. Currently, after the UNSC decides to send a mission to a conflict area it issues a resolution detailing the mandate of the mission.

Member states are then requested to make necessary contributions for the missions. In Ghana, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs makes policy decision for the participation in a mission. The General Headquarters (GHQ) of the Ghana Armed Forces and the Peacekeeping Directorate at the GHQ decide the scope and scale, logistics and operational details of the Ghana contingent. 41. In this decision-making process the involvement of the parliament or public is absent. Sweden, as a contributor towards peacekeeping provides a noteworthy example for Ghana to emulate.

The Swedish constitution, as the final arbiter, prescribes that a Swedish armed unit can be sent abroad in any of the following three causes only: a. If the Parliament so decides. b. If it is in compliance with a binding international commitment, already approved by Parliament. c. If it is permitted under law, preciously enacted by Parliament defining the conditions for the measure in question. Besides the mentioned reasons, Swedish law does not permit the employment servicemen to any purpose except that of training or the defence of Sweden. 20 42.

Public support insulates from establishment from overt and covert pressures exerted on it whenever it has to commit troops to contentious and complex conflict areas. The Ghana parliament must have a decisive say in deciding matter of committing troops to prevent the country from over-stretching its forces. Also, from becoming embroiled in conflicts that may have negative fallouts and far-reaching repercussions. THE DEBATE OF FINANCIAL GAINS VIS-A-VIS THE ISSUE OF ‘CANNON FODDER’ 43. Till the early 1990s, American and European soldiers formed the financial and physical backbone of UN peacekeeping forces.

However, their participation has acutely decreased, as a significantly large number of troops are being contributed by developing countries. Internationally, a view is developing that; UN peacekeeping is being ‘subcontracted to Third World soldiers who endure the physical risk, while rich countries bear the cost. 21 At home soldiers cost money, but as blue helmets they generate income, about $1,000 per soldier per month. Blue helmets have thus become an export product. 22 44. Presently, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Jordan and Ghana are the 6 largest contributors to UN peacekeeping forces.

Currently they contribute 10,616, 9,717, 9,345, 3,656, 3,569 and 2,932 respectively to UN missions making a total of 39845 personnel. The 5 permanent members of the UNSC (the US, Britain, France, Russia and China), who authorize all the blue beret operations, have a total of 2,802 personnel. This is far fewer than each of the large contributors. See Annex B for more details. Lakhar Brahimi, who headed the Panel on UN Peace-Operations, remarked in his report ‘you can’t have a situation where some people contribute blood and some contribute money.

That’s not the UN we want’. 23 45. Regarding its contributions to UN peacekeeping operations, Ghana must retain its focus on its strategic and foreign policy priorities. It is imperative that Ghana peacekeepers are viewed neither as mercenaries nor cannon fodder. Participation in a mission should only be approved after its cost-benefits are ascertained. Furthermore, strategic imperatives, political gains and ideological principles assessed and backed up by a national consensus. THREAT OF HIV/AIDS 46.

UNSC Resolution 1308 addresses HIV/AIDS specifically in the context of peacekeeping operations. It therefore task UNAIDS to cooperate with member states to develop ‘effective long term strategies for HIV/AIDS education, prevention, voluntary and confidential testing and counseling. In addition they should assist in treatment of their (member states) personnel as an important part of their participation in peacekeeping operations. 24 47. On 17 April 2004, the Under-Secretary General, Peter Piot, executive director of UNAIDS, raised the alarm in the UNSC.

He made it known that ‘HIV/AIDS represents a challenge to every one of the soldiers and police officers under UN command. 25 The threat of HIV/AIDS is grave to peacekeepers, particularly to those serving in Africa. 48. Currently, 8 peacekeeping missions are underway in Africa: Sudan, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia/Eritrea, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Burundi and Western Sahara. Ghanaian troops are serving in 7 out of the 8 missions in Africa.

The challenge of HIV is awesome. Awareness and training about these grave issues need to be increased for Ghana peacekeepers. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 49. Peacekeeping has become a risky and volatile endeavour. Vulnerability to deadly attacks, exposure to disease and extreme mental stress impairs a soldier’s personal and professional capability. An investigation of the Norwegian peacekeepers who served in the UN Interim Force in Lebanon documented that 15% of those who completed their service developed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Also, approximately 8% of American peacekeepers in Somalia met the criteria for PTSD 5 months after their return to the US.

Furthermore, 3% of Dutch peacekeepers in the former Yugoslavia developed PTSD. 50. Clinical studies demonstrated that, in addition to those who develop PTSD, many more peacekeepers suffer from significant, sub-threshold levels of PTSD symptoms. 26 PTSD in peacekeepers is now expected fallout and many contributing countries now take necessary precautionary and post-mission curative steps. It is surprising that no case of PSTD among Ghana peacekeepers has been reported or made public. 51. Ghana needs to vastly improve the qualitative health measures for its peacekeepers.

This will ensure safeguards for their full mental and physical health in order to provide best service for the national armed forces. PROTECTION OF PERSONNEL 52. The protection of peacekeepers is enshrined in the 1994 UN Convention under the provision for Safety of UN and Associated Personnel. 27 This Convention seeks to improve the protection level of the UN and Associated Personnel who undertake the dangerous task of participating in peace support operations. Furthermore, it seeks to punish the perpetrators of attacks against these personnel.

53. Ghana to date has lost over 100 soldiers in peacekeeping duties around the world. The largest casualties were in Sinai where 55 Ghanaian soldiers were killed. The Convention of Safety must be fully implemented and enforced by the Government of Ghana to ensure the safety of Ghanaian troops. CONSTRAINTS OF THE GHANA ARMED FORCES 54. Since the early 1960’s the need for peacekeepers has grown exponentially. The Ghana Armed Forces indeed have been supporting governments in their efforts towards peace operations.

However, the institution is faced with major challenges in the modest attempt to contribute to peacekeeping operations. Specifically, the Ghana Armed Forces face lack of resources, training and equipment. 28 These challenges coupled with incompatible command structures and sometimes muddled mandates affect morale and discipline. 55. Inadequate resource is a fundamental challenge to the Ghana Armed Forces leadership and hence, hinders its participation in peacekeeping operations. The major constraint is the lack of logistics.

The UN has thus made a number of options for the provision of major equipment and their support to ensure units deploy with required capability. These are the ‘wet and dry lease’ system and the option chosen is directly linked to the rate of reimbursement. 29 Of the 2, the most preferred by the UN is the wet lease. Under the wet lease arrangements a contingent deploys with its Contingent Own Equipment (COE) and is responsible for its maintenance and support. The UN provides accommodation, storage facilities and utilities. The troop is thus reimbursed at set rates.

56. Unfortunately, the Defence budget is about 1% of the overall national budget which is too meager for the Armed Forces. In view of this, Ghana has not been able to take full advantage of the wet lease system as required by the UN. This is because the Ghana Armed Forces has not been able to satisfy all the logistic requirements for its peacekeeping operations. Moreover it deploys in several missions concurrently over-stretching it limited resources. The country therefore looses a lot of revenue with its inadequate logistics for missions. 57.

Most of the secondary equipment used by the Ghana Armed Forces is also old. It suffers from frequent shortages of spare parts and poor maintenance of equipment. The Ghanaian military often has to do with poorly-serviced weaponry and equipment due to difficult maintenance capabilities. As a result, maintenance tasks are often contracted to foreign military advisors and technicians at high cost. There is therefore the need for resources for capital development in the military. 58. Another problem is that the current strength of the Armed Forces is woefully inadequate.

Also, majority of the soldiers have reached their retirement ages. Personnel are therefore stressed up with the additional commitments to peacekeeping operations. This seriously hampers the ability of the military to contribute to socio-economic development of the country. Enlistment and recruitment thus have to be conducted to meet the required strength. 59. Lack of resources will definitely have an effect on the pre-operational training of personnel. Despite the establishment of the Kofi Anan International Peacekeeping Training Center, pre-operational training is organized by the selected contingents.

With inadequate resources it is obvious that certain aspects of the training are not satisfied fully. In 1997 the Ghana Armed Forces started benefiting from training for peace operations under the African Crises Response Initiative (ACRI) by the United States. This programme has now changed to African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) and incorporated into the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). However, it is worthy to note that most military personnel taking part in GPOI/ACOTA programmes are relatively high ranking military officers trained in the US one at a time.

Senior Officers are less likely to pass down their knowledge when they return. The “trickle down” effect on training to regular soldiers could therefore be limited. 30 POSSIBLE FUTURE OF THE GHANA ARMED FORCES IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS 60. Since 1948, many countries have served the UN in its quest for global peace and security by contributing their soldiers and police to peacekeeping. But few can boast of Ghana’s steadfast commitment and willingness to answer the UN call. Ghana’s peacekeepers provide a human touch in the mist of misery and depravity.

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