The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought many changes in the life of the people. Many big factories were established to produce goods on a large scale in Europe and America. They bought raw materials at a very low price from their colonies and sold them the manufactured goods at a high price. This made these countries very rich and powerful. They made all types of weapons.
These countries fought among themselves. Small battles led to big wars. The early part of the 20th century witnessed two World Wars, which involved many countries of the world. The World War I was fought from 1914 to 1918,and the World War II was fought from 1939 to 1945. Millions of people were killed and much property was destroyed during these wars. Human beings had never seen wars of this kind before.
They were worried and terrified. After the World War I, the United States and Britain thought that there should be an agency to maintain peace in the world. The League of Nations was formed to prevent another war. But it failed and it could not prevent the World War II, which was even more destructive. This feeling gave birth to the United Nations Organization (UNO), now popularly called the United Nations (UN).
The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War. Delegates from fifty countries met in San Francisco to draft a charter for the United Nations. The United Nations came into being on 24th October, 1945. This day, every year, is celebrated as the UN Day throughout the world. Objectives of UN The charter of the United Nations is its constitution. Its main objectives are security and development, The United Nations has been made to work for the promotion of:
1.peace and security for every country of the world, 2. friendly relations among the member countries, 3. human freedom and rights, and 4. development, by raising the*^ production of food, providing medical facilities and solution of the problems of children and refugees. Whenever there is some problem, it tries to solve it through the cooperation of its members. The United Nations prepared a list of human rights, called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It was adopted on 10th December 1948, which is celebrated as the Human Rights Day all over the world. Some of the important rights are :
1. The right to live as free citizens of a country. 2. Equality before the law. 3. The right of free speech and writing. 4. The right to education, employment and freedom of religion. 5. Freedom from discrimination based on religion or sex. 6. Equal pay for equal work. 7. Freedom to travel from one place to another. The United Nations is trying its best to make all these rights a reality in every country of the world. Fifty-one nations became original members of the UN. Over the years the membership of the UN has grown.
Today it has more than 185 members. So, we can define United Nations as -“The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. ” Organs or Bodies of UN : There are six principal bodies of the UN: General Assembly- Consists of all member states of the U. N. Each member nation can send five delegates but each nation has only one vote. The General Assembly meets in regular session beginning in September each year. Security Council- It is the executive body of the U.N.
It consists of total 15 members, out of which 5 members are permanent and the remaining 10 members are non-permanent. China, France, Russia, UK and USA are the permanent members. The non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for 2 years from among the member states. The permanent members of the security council have got veto power.
Economic and Social Council- This organ of the U. N. consists of 54 representatives of the member countries elected by a two third majority of the General Assembly. Its main function is to achieve international co-operation by solving international problems of economic, social, cultural and humanitarian character. One third of this council is elected every year for the period three years and equal numbers retire annually. International Court of Justice- It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
The headquarters of the International court of justice is at The Hague (Netherlands). The court consists of 15 judges. The judges of the court are elected by the General Assembly along with the security courier for a nine year term. Trusteeship Council- This organ consists of 14 members out of which five are the permanent members of the security council, The function of this organ is to provide for an international trusteeship system to safeguard the interests of inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self governing and which may be placed there under by individual agreements.
Secretariat- This organ of the United Nations is the chief administrative office which coordinates and supervises the activities of the U. N. This secretariat is headed by a Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. Secretary-General of the U. N. is elected for five years and eligible for re-election.