Thesis: The role of the United Nations has changed from being primarily an international peacekeeping force to primarily a humanitarian organization. I. History II. 1940’s and 1950’s: International Peacekeeping A. Creation of the United Nations B. Peacekeeping Missions III. Present Day: Humanitarian Efforts A. Transition B. Missions IV. Future: One World Government A. Coming About B. Benefits The United Nations: 1940’s-1950’s, Present, and Future The United Nations was created in a time of uneasy peace between the nations of the world. World War II had just ended.
The League of Nations, the predecessor to the United Nations failed to prevent war. It, not unlike the American government when it was first created, did not have enough power to follow through with its decisions. After the war it was clearly seen that some major changes would have to be undertaken in order correct the problems that plagued the League of Nations. The League of Nations did not have any power to execute its decisions. It could not stop Hitler from invading the European countries or do much of anything else. This is major weakness for any organization and could not exist in the United Nations.
The League of nations was also weak politically with the United States being a major world power and not supporting it. At this point the United States still had very isolationistic ideals and did not feel any desire to be tied to the political or social problems of Europe. Now that the United States had dove head first into World War II and was a world power rivaled only with the Soviet Union, it had no reason not to be a part of the United Nations. All governments evolve and seem to have a trial and error process. The United Nations is like the second phase in the creation of a world government.
The League of Nations clearly failed every purpose in every way, except to act as a stepping stone for something better. That better organization that was created is the United Nations. The goal of the United Nations when it was first created was to keep peace between the nations of the world. In the Charter for the United Nations it is stated the purpose of the United Nations is “to maintain international peace and security,” “to develop friendly relations among nations,” “to achieve international cooperation in solving economic problems,” and “to harmonize the actions of nations in to attain common ends.
” (Charter 322) The United Nations was designed so that all the nations belonging, no matter how big or how small, would have complete equality. It was quickly adopted by the United States and fifty other countries. This feature of equality was a very important. The attraction for other countries is that it let them feel like they would have a say in the General Assembly. This aspect is a major reason why the United Nations now has grown to include 185 nations, almost every country in the world. (Charter 321) Once the Cold War started, the United Nations had its hands full.
The Soviet Union created the Cominform in order to get other countries to adopt communism. The United States was on a mission to stop communism from spreading. The most distressing part of this conflict is that both countries had nuclear weapons all over the world backing their words. (Vandenberg 518) The United Nations first peacekeeping mission took place the same year Israel became a nation. Once Britain granted Israel its independence, the surrounding Arab nations attacked right away. After a few weeks of war the United Nations helped to work out a truce between the nations.
United Nations forces are still there monitoring the situation, but right now it seems that there will never be peace in that area, especially since they have been fighting each other for thousands of years. (United Nations Peace Keeping Forces 1) The very first act of armed peacekeeping that the United Nations undertook was during the Suez Canal crisis in 1956. It was learned that it was possible for a large enough international force to stand between warring factions until peace could be reestablished. (United Nations 3) Later the peacekeeping forces brought about cease-fires in Central America and the Iran-Iraq War.
As a safeguard they kept forces there to make sure that peace continued. After a few failures in Africa, the United Nations learned that by sending a force that is too small and not very intimidating, peace will crumble. The largest peacekeeping mission ever undertaken by the United Nations was the civil war between Bosnia and Herzegovina, after Yugoslavia broke up. On numerous occasions the United Nations underestimated the forces needed and failed the campaign. Since that failure in Bosnia, the United Nations has refused help to any other nations requesting assistance. (United Nations 2).
Since the end of the Cold War and the many failed attempts at peacekeeping, the United Nations has focused more on humanitarian efforts and defending human rights. After the Soviet Union fell, the mission of keeping peace between the U. S. S. R. and the United States was over. Now the United Nations has had to develop another focus for managing their resources. The United Nations have now been focusing their resources on humanitarian efforts and the protection of human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, like the Charter for United Nations is very similar to the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
It secures, in writing, all of the inalienable rights that human beings have. There have been more than eighty other more specific human rights treaties established since then. (Universal 1) In order to prosecute the war criminals who break these rules, an International Criminal Court was established in 1998. This showed all would-be war criminals that crimes against humanity will no longer go unpunished. (UN in brief 4) There are also humanitarian missions that help out countries in distress. This could be due to natural disasters or war. If people are in need of food and shelter or medical supplies, the United Nations will be there to help.
Recently many hostile forces have killed United Nations workers and civilians. This is due to the lack of respect for human rights. The International Criminal Court hopes to correct this problem but operating in the field will always be dangerous work. (UN in brief 4-5) The United Nations has also been helping grant colonies their freedom. Since 1960, about sixty former colonies have joined the United Nations as independent states. The United Nations helps the new countries by sending them instructors to teach them how to manage their infant government in both economics and social areas.
The United Nations also helps out these developing countries by giving them financial aid to get their feet off the ground. There is the World Bank which gives twenty-five billion dollars a year to countries in need. The United Nations then follows the progression of these developing countries to make sure that they succeed and don? t become another third-world country. As the world grows and nations begin to unite the United Nations will begin to serve as a government for the whole of the free world. New technology will play a major role in the coming together of the nations of the world.
With the increase in technology comes a much smaller world. The Euro, the new form of currency for all of Europe, is just the start of new bonds between countries. Now that one currency is used trading will be much easier there won’t be the constant changing of monetary value due to inflation and deflation for every different country. This will not only make things easier for the people living in Europe but for everyone around the world who is involved with business in Europe. Jet planes, high-speed bullet trains, and new hybrid cars that can travel seven hundred miles on one tank of gas all allow for faster and more convenient ways of physically getting around the world.
This could mean someone living in Italy going to Paris to do their afternoon shopping. Major cities will become huge expansions spanning hundreds of miles in order to hold the influx of population. They will become the heart of everything that goes on in the world. There is also the internet, which is probably the single most important factor in bringing the world together. With this technology people and governments can get in touch with each other instantaneously.
People can see and talk to each other from opposite sides of the world. Countries that are in such close proximity to one another and have such similar cultures can only benefit from merging together. With over 185 members in the United Nations today, it is not inconceivable to see more nations merging and fewer governments in the future, maybe even a one-world government. The United Nations of today is simply not designed up to handle this. In order for the United Nations to be at the head of the one-world government it will have to go under some radical changes.
The basic principles of human rights and equality under democracy will remain a major part of this government, but the governing bodies will have to be completely overhauled. Every part that has any real power will now be able to make decisions for all nations without each country having its own interests. It will resemble all of the governments of the free world, but most similarities will be with the United States whose government has been tried and stands out as the most equal and democratic government in history. The United States is also the only remaining superpower in the world so it will end up being the basis for everything that goes on in the government.
This new government will create an almost perfect economy since there will be no more tariffs on goods traded between countries. This will drive prices down as will the increase in entrepreneurship and new competition among businesses. Better products will be made in order for companies to get an edge over one another. Lower prices and better products increase the consumer market, therefore bettering the economy. Once small countries or countries that wanted to wait and see how this new government worked out saw how well it was doing, they would want to join also.
Soon almost every country would be a part of this government. The few countries that did not join because they were Communist or wanted to stay independent would be cut off from the rest of the world. They would end up being absorbed by the government through economic pressure or if it becomes necessary, war. Once every former independent nation in the world is united into one, all Earth’s resources can be focused on important, constructive goals, such as improvements in the colonization of space, or protection of the environment on Earth.
With everyone on the planet working together in harmony, all our resources would be going towards bettering the conditions in which we live rather than making things to destroy it. It would be the equivalent of the cooperation with the international space station but for every endeavor that was set out upon and with every country included. The purpose that the United Nations serves has had to change over the years. With governments falling and new ones being created in place of them it has had no choice but to change its focus with the changing world.
In the past there were world powers that had to be subdued in order to prevent World War III from happening. Instead, there are now tyrants that need to be stopped from ruthlessly leading their people into bondage and suffering. People who do nothing but serve their own petty wants rule entire countries with millions of people to control. They have nuclear and biological weapons to do with whatever they please. There are countries that just need food for their people who are starving to death in the streets. Other countries have so many people in their country that there are limits on how many children are allowed to be in a family.
The extra children are left to die after they are born or are placed in orphanages with to little care and not enough to eat. The United Nations is definitely still needed and will stay active with plenty of people to protect. That is until the nations begin to unite and one day there is one governing body for the nation of Earth. But until that day comes there will always be some sort of conflict and a need for the United Nations. Works Cited “Charter of the United Nations. ” The Annals of America 16 1976): 321-331 McGovern, George. “Foreign Policy and the Crisis Mentality.
” The Atlantic Monthly January 1967. 25 Nov. 2000 <http://www. theatlantic. com/politics/foreign/mcgovfp. htm> Morris, Christopher. “United Nations Forces in Bosnia. ” photograph. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2000 ed. Reuters. “United Nations Peacekeepers. ” photograph. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2000 ed. Roosevelt, Eleanor. “The United Nations. ” The Annals of America 16(1976): 613-617 Truman, Harry S. “Postwar Foreign Policy. ” The Annals of America 16 (1976): 343-344 “UN in Brief. ” United Nations. Sep. 2000. 29 Nov. 2000 <http://www. un. org/Overview/brief. html> “United Nations.
” Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2000 ed. “United Nations Peacekeeping Forces. ” Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2000 ed. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ” OHCHR: English Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1998. 26 Nov. 2000 <http://www. unhchr. ch/udhr/lang/eng. htm> UPI/The Bettmann Archive. “Big Three. ” photograph. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2000 ed. Vandenberg, Arthur H. “Collective Security Within the United Nations. ” The Annals of America 16 (1976): 518-519 ——–. “Sovereignty and the United Nations. ” The Annals of America 16 (1976): 331-333.