United Nation System and Organs

The United Nations (abbreviated UN in English, and ONU in French and Spanish), is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.

The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions. The UN currently has a total of 193 member states. From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year.

The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive).

Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The UN’s most prominent position is Secretary-General which has been held by Ban Ki-moon of South Korea since 2007. The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City, with further main offices at Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

[2] Contents[hide] * 1 History * 2 Legal basis of establishment * 3 Organization * 3. 1 General Assembly * 3. 2 Security Council * 3. 3 Secretariat * 3. 3. 1 Secretary-General * 3. 4 International Court of Justice * 3. 5 Economic and Social Council * 3. 5. 1 Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues * 3. 6 Specialized institutions * 4 Membership * 4. 1 Group of 77 * 5 Objectives * 5. 1 Peacekeeping and security * 5. 2 Human rights and humanitarian assistance * 5. 3 Social and economic development * 5. 4 Mandates * 5. 4. 1 Greening the Blue * 5. 5 Other * 6 Funding * 7 Personnel policy * 8 Reform and criticism * 9.

See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links| History Main article: History of the United Nations The Chilean delegation signing the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945 The League of Nations failed to prevent World War II (1939–1945). Because of the widespread recognition that humankind could not afford a third world war, the United Nations was established to replace the flawed League of Nations in 1945 in order to maintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic, social and humanitarian problems.

The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization was begun under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939. Franklin D. Roosevelt first coined the term ‘United Nations’ as a term to describe the Allied countries. [3] The term was first officially used on 1 January 1942, when 26 governments signed the Atlantic Charter, pledging to continue the war effort. [4] On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter.

The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council—France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States—and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Methodist Central Hall Westminster in London beginning 6 January 1946.

[5] The organization was based at the Sperry Gyroscope Corporation’s facility in Lake Success, New York, from 1946–1952, before moving to the United Nations Headquarters building in Manhattan upon its completion. Since its creation, there has been controversy and criticism of the United Nations. In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a “get US out of the UN” campaign in 1959, charging that the UN’s aim was to establish a “One World Government”.

After the Second World War, the French Committee of National Liberation was late to be recognized by the US as the government of France, and so the country was initially excluded from the conferences that aimed at creating the new organization. Charles de Gaulle criticized the UN, famously calling it a machin (“contraption”), and was not convinced that a global security alliance would help maintain world peace, preferring direct defence treaties between countries. [6] Legal basis of establishment.

Shortly after its establishment the UN sought recognition as an international legal person due to the case of Reparations for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations[7] with the advisory opinion delivered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ). The question arose whether the United Nations, as an organisation, had “the capacity to bring an international claim against a government regarding injuries that the organisation alleged had been caused by that state”.

[8] The Court stated: the Organization was intended to exercise and enjoy, and is in fact exercising and enjoying functions and rights, which can only be explained on the basis of the possession of a large measure of international personality and the capacity to operate upon an international plane … Accordingly, the Court has come to the conclusion that the Organization is an international person. That is not the same thing as saying that it is a State, which it certainly is not, or that its legal personality and rights and duties are the same as those of a State …

What it does mean is that it is a subject of international law and capable of possessing international rights and duties, and that it has capacity to maintain its rights by bringing international claims. [9] Organization Main article: United Nations System The United Nations’ system is based on five principal organs (formerly six – the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994, upon the independence of Palau, the last remaining UN trustee territory);[10] the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice.

Four of the five principal organs are located at the main United Nations Headquarters located on international territory in New York City. [11] The International Court of Justice is located in The Hague, while other major agencies are based in the UN offices at Geneva,[12] Vienna,[13] and Nairobi. [14] Other UN institutions are located throughout the world. The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

[2] The Secretariat uses two working languages, English and French. Four of the official languages are the national languages of the permanent members of the Security Council (the United Kingdom and the United States share English as a de facto official language); Spanish and Arabic are the languages of the two largest blocs of official languages outside of the permanent members (Spanish being official in 20 countries, Arabic in 26).

Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded; Arabic was added later in 1973. The United Nations Editorial Manual states that the standard for English language documents is British usage and Oxford spelling, the Chinese writing standard is Simplified Chinese. This replaced Traditional Chinese in 1971 when the UN representation of China was changed from the Republic of China to the People’s Republic of China (see China and the United Nations for details).

Principal organs of the United Nations [15] UN General Assembly – Deliberative assembly of all UN member states (each country has one vote) -| | UN Secretariat – Administrative organ of the UN – its chairman is the UN Secretary General -| | International Court of Justice – Universal court for international law (based in The Hague) -| | | | | |

* may resolve non-compulsory recommendations to states, or suggestions to the UNSC (not a Parliament) * decides on the admission of new members, on proposal of the UNSC * adopts the budget * elects the non-permanent members of the UNSC, all members of ECOSOC, on the proposal of the UNSC the UN Secretary General, and the 15 judges of the ICJ| | * supports the other UN bodies administratively, e. g.in the organization of conferences, writing reports and studies, and the preparation of the budget-plan.

* its chairman – the UN Secretary General – is elected by the UN General Assembly for a five-year mandate and is the most important representative of the UN * beside its headquarters in New York City it has three main offices in Geneva, Nairobi and Vienna| | * decides disputes between states that recognize its jurisdiction and creates legal opinions * the 15 judges are elected by the UN General Assembly for nine years.

It renders judgement with relative majority * parties on the ICJ can only be countries, however no international organizations and other subjects of international law (not to be confused with the ICC)| | UN Security Council – For international security issues -| | UN Economic and Social Council – For global economical and social affairs -| | UN Trusteeship Council – Was administering trust territories (currently not active) -| | | | | | | | | |

* responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security * the most powerful organ of the UN, as it may adopt compulsory resolutions * its decisions include peacekeeping- and peace enforcement-missions, as well as non-military pressure mediums, such as trade embargos * has 15 members: five permanent members with veto power, and ten elected members| | * responsible for cooperation between states on economic and social fields (raising the general standard of living, solve economic, social and health problems, promotion of human rights, culture and education, as well as humanitarian aid.)

* therefore it has established numerous functional and regional commissions * also coordinates the cooperation with the numerous specialized agencies of the United Nations * has 54 members, who are elected by the UN General Assembly to serve staggered three-year mandates| | * was originally designed to manage colonial possessions that were earlier League of Nations mandates * is inactive since 1994, with the last trust territory (Namibia) attaining independence in 1990| | | United Nations Research Assignment Raelle Mejias 1. Four of the UN’s most important goals are:

a) To keep the peace and stop war. b) To promote human rights and equality. c) To increase the amount of justice in the world. d) To keep international relations happy. 2. The UN’s General Assembly has one seat and vote for every member in the assembly and meets once a year to talk about world problems and issues. There are 191 members. The General Assembly April 13 adopted the text of the International Treaty for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, which makes it a crime for terrorists to possess or threaten to use nuclear weapons. I agree with the treaty because their motive makes a lot of sense. 3. The World Court was created by the U. N. charter.

Its main role is to settle disputes submitted to it from states and give advisory opinions on legal questions. The Security Council and the General Assembly elect 15 Judges which last each for a nine-year term. 4. The United Nations Security Council investigates disputes and keeps the peace and security. The current Members of the Security Council includes 10 members elected by the General Assembly and five states as permanent members: United States, China, Russian Federation, and France whom hold veto power over the rest of the members: Algeria, Argentina, Benin, Brazil, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Romania, Philippines, and the United Republican of Tanzania. 5.

A) UNICEF- Aids the education and the health of children and mothers in developing countries B) UNEP- To protect atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems the promotion of environmental science and information, to have early warning and emergency response to deal with environmental disasters and emergencies. C) FAO- Is the international organization of food and agriculture. D) WHO- Is a UN agency that coordinates international health activities and helps government’s improve their health services. [continues].

“United Nations Research Assignment” StudyMode. com. 06 2005. 06 2005 <http://www. studymode. com/essays/United-Nations-Research-Assignment-61052. html>. CHICAGO “United Nations Research Assignment. ” StudyMode. com. 06, 2005. Accessed 06, 2005. http://www. studymode. com/essays/United-Nations-Research-Assignment-61052. html.