In this essay we will try to let you know about the nuclear power, its pros and cons, the nuclear program that Iran introduced and the way Security Council reacted to Iran’s Nuclear Program. We will talk about the obligations that, the Security Council made on the government of Iran and how the government behaved. Furthermore, we will discuss that hoe Israel reacted on Iran’s nuclear program. The country Iran, itself have a long history, its culture, traditions, art and knowledge are all different from other countries. It has a wide and unique history, and it has also never lacked in innovations and new discoveries.
The country significantly contributed to a great deal on the knowledge of astronomy, medicine, mathematics, nature and philosophy. To mention, I would like to quote that Persians were the one who discovered ALGEBRA, they came up the wind mills and founded the medical usage of alcohol which no doubt proved beneficial. They have not stopped yet, currently they are working on the golden age of the Persian science. They have been ranked on the first position in terms of output and growth. Theoretical and Computational sciences are the fields where Iranians has showed their best.
Despite have less resources for research and development and for the experimentation, Iran always managed to come up with new innovations, despite of having low international relationships Iranian scientists’ remains productive in many fields such as: pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry, pharmacology and polymer chemistry. Since 1990’s Iranian Biophysicist (especially molecular biophysics) have gained a good reputation internationally and are well known world-wide. Studies for Micro-calorimetry, circular dichroism has been showed progress during recent decades in Iran.
And now the most recent innovation what Iran did id the nuclear plant they made. It was stated in the 1990’s report that nuclear power generates 16% of the world’s electricity but now it has decreased to 15. 7%. Many countries such as Iraq, United States, United Kingdom and many more rely heavily on the nuclear power. Separating two chemicals i. e. “fission” generates heat which, in turn, helps in producing electricity. A significant human use of nuclear power is currently limited to the radioactive decay and fission. It produces when Uranium reacts and creates heat, which is used in producing steam, to boil water and drive steam turbines.
These turbines help a great deal in generating electricity. Nuclear power also proved to be helpful for military purposes; it is used in most submarines and aircrafts. Its use is controversial because it stores radioactive wastes for a large period of time, which is harmful and results in radioactive contamination, it can also lead to nuclear weapons. There are many controversies relating Nuclear Power, including an environmental group believes that it’s a dangerous source of energy with an uneconomic benefit compared to the renewable energy source but these risks and costs can be reduced through new technologies.
But there are some major groups who think in a positive way, a group of people believe that with every new invention there also comes some negative aspects, same is the case with the nuclear plant, nuclear power has some risks, which can be reduced by introducing new and heavy technology. They also believe that the radioactive wastage is much lesser than the coal power, and as compared to the fossil-fuel plant, its safety is extremely remarkable. A group of people suggested an alternative that instead of Uranium, Thorium can be also used as a fission fuel, as it is three times in abundant as compared to Uranium in the Earth’s crust.
An inefficient use of nuclear fuel by light water reactors, leads to the waste of energy. A more efficient reactor should be designed in such a way that it reduces the waste amount that is generated and would allow using the resources more efficiently. There are also many risks in operating such nuclear powers. Greenpeace argues that it generates so much of radioactive wastes that can also lead to nuclear weapons. In 1978 the supreme court of United States stated that they have been studying for this problem for a long time but have failed to come to a solution.
They further said that they have failed to remove the risks and accidents that results in extensive damage. Many countries used the Nuclear Power in some way or other, North Korea is an example, who used Nuclear Power in its weaponry, and planned to have an arsenal of chemical weapons. This mass destruction is somewhat limited to the missile technology. Nevertheless, United Nations Security Council had to say some something in this regard; they argued that North Korea should not take any step that could aggravate tension and creates panic in the region; they should rather come to a comprehensive and peaceful solution.
But on the 9th of October 2006, North Korea announced that it performed its first ever nuclear test. The test was successful as it proved to have no radioactive leakage. Some scientists measurements showed that the explosion was equal to 500metric ton of TNT. And according to the nuclear tests that India and Pakistan conducted in 1998 were 24 to 50 times more powerful ten what Korea did. After hearing the announcement of North Korea, the UN Security council passed sanctions on the country. Many organizations and institutions have brought out protests regarding the peace and Iran’s nuclear program all around the world in this regard.
The United Nation Security Council’s duty is to promote peace and maintain security among nations. United Nations Security Council has the power to make decisions which member governments are forced to obey their rules and regulations. The council is made up of fifteen member states, in which five are permanent and ten are temporary seats. The permanent include Russia, France, China, United States and United Kingdom. These five nations are only nations that pose nuclear weapons under the treaty but no doubt that they lack in universal validity.
However, there are some nations that also pose nuclear weapons; nations such as North Korea, Israel, Pakistan and India but these nations have not signed the treaty. Out of the five permanent members four were the top weapons exporters in the year 2004, China was on the seventh number. The ‘Security Council’ as the phrase suggests itself that it gives security to nations. It also investigates if any dispute or crises are in action or if any situation gives rise to a dispute which in future creates panic internationally. They pass resolutions for the betterment of the world so that every nation could enjoy but within limitations.
It also plays a vital role in preventing armed conflicts. They also emphases truly on the resolutions and obligations made by them in the “Charter of the united nations”, it also focuses on equality, political independence, territorial integrity. They also assure that every nation should show respect to the human rights. The UN Security Council expects every nation to contribute in a positive manner to economic problems, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. Their main focus is to resolve armed conflicts, which occur due to the economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
The Security Council wants each of its nations to work on peace and work for the development of effective long-term strategies. United Nations wants nations to take preventive actions in reducing poverty and promote respect for human rights. There were criticisms also made on the Security Council. The first was that United Nation Security Council all permanent members were only those who had nuclear powers. General Assembly was the true international representation of the United Nation Security Council and only addresses the interests and believes of the permanent members.
Non-nuclear countries are only selected for temporary basis. Another criticism was made about the VETO power of these five permanent countries. It can halt any decision the United Nation Security Council may take. Another critics questions the council’s relevance and effectiveness. It quoted the world-war II, where United Nations tried its level best to protect Srebrenica but did not supported Massacre. Srebrenica was provided by 400 armed Dutch peacekeepers, but on the other hand there was not support given to Massacre.
Security Council states that the main role in keeping security in a region is of the secretary general, the secretary general can help in the prevention of armed forces, in this regard the Security Council, encourages secretary generals in identifying potential threats to international peace and helps them in keeping security in their regions. They also consider other preventive measures such as demilitarized zones and preventive disarmament. It also concerns about the importance of disarmament and non proliferation of weapons.
They keep on introducing new rules and regulations according to the situations and the changing time. They can never stop their activities in the prevention of the armed conflicts. They further hold orientations, sessions, workshops and debates jus to strengthen cooperation between countries, cooperation with the economic and social council. To begin with this program Iran signed a treaty known as “Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty”. The United Nation General Assembly approved the text of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Represented by the United States and Soviet Union.
They also signed the treaty with fifty-nine other countries. This treaty had three main provisions, the first and the paramount was that the nuclear states were prohibited. The Soviet Union, United States, The Great Britain, Republic of China and France were not allowed to transfer nuclear weapons to non-nuclear states. Similarly, non-nuclear states were not allowed to manufacture or receive nuclear weapons. The second provision was the nuclear energy by all states was given high protection by the treaty. International Atomic Energy Agency assured that nuclear powers would never be diverted from nuclear energy.
And the last provision was that the treaty restricted all the nuclear states to “pursue negotiation in faith”. Some countries like India, Cuba, Israel and Pakistan refused to sign the treaty. They argued that the treaty is not preventing those countries that have their own nuclear arsenals. In the upcoming years the United Nations will have to face many criticisms like this. The NPT makes a distinction between nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states. It concedes five nuclear-weapon states: China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Article II outlaws non-nuclear-weapon states that are delegations to the accord to fabricate or otherwise attain nuclear arms or nuclear explosive devices. While article III deals with management and assessments that are anticipated to avert the diversion of nuclear energy from tranquil uses to nuclear weapons or explosive devices. These precautions are relevant solitary to non-nuclear-weapon states and specifically to diplomatic nuclear activities. The agreement contains no stipulation for confirmation of the uphill struggle by nuclear-weapon nations to thwart the propagation of nuclear weapons.
Under the Provision of article IV, all parties should conduct the nuclear research and development just for the peace purposes not for any destruction means, this include all those countries that have signed the treaty, weather they are non-nuclear weapons state or nuclear weapon states. This program was started in 1950, but without the help of United States this program would never been possible. The government temporarily disbanded the program after the “Iranian Revolution” in 1979, but Iran resumed the program in a couple of time.
Iranian government says that, Iran’s only goal is to develop a peaceful capacity for nuclear power generation and it is also trying to generate 6000MW electricity till 2010. The project is under the secretary of Supreme National Security Council. According to Iran, Nuclear power gives a boom to population, and rapidly increases industrialization in the nation. The country imports electricity and gasoline, but burning fossil fuel harms Iran’s environment to a great deal. Iran also wishes to diversify its sources of energy.
The current estimation of Iran’s oil reserves are 133 billion barrels. Iran also raises financial questions; it further claims the excess capacity would cost $40 billion. “The Iranian side of the discourse is that, they want to be known and seen as a modern and developing state with a modern, developing industrial base. The history of relations between Iran and West for the last hundred years has included Iran’s developing various kinds of industrial and technological advances to prove themselves-and to attempt to prove the world that they are, in fact, the kind of country. ”
“William O Beeman”, a Professor of Middle East Brown University On March 29 the UN Security Council canceled Iran’s nuclear plant due to Uranium enrichment and Plutonium reprocessing. After a month, Director General of IAEA reported that: Iran has already built one 164-centrifudge cascade and now it is planning to operate two more, even though Security Council has suspended Uranium enrichment, he further said that rather stopping the work of Plutonium, Iran is continuously working on it. In fact, heavy machineries like water reactors that produce Plutonium are still in use.
Moreover, Iran showed no response in the Council’s reaction and did not cooperate at all. Even this was not all; Iran restricted the IAEA inspectors in the county. According to the news reporter of Tehran, Mark Henrich said that Iran thinks that it should fire all the overseeing nuclear inspectors in the country, crowning them as “breach of trust”. It banned 38 inspectors from four Western nations. The country should stop its nuclear activities rather then firing those innocent western inspectors. Iran did it just because United Nations Security Council wanted it to stop enriching Uranium.
The United Nations Security Council did it just because to it is a pathway to crime and terrorism. The sanctions that Security Council imposed on Iran, these sanctions reflect the UN Security Council resolution 1736. The sanctions include: Te IAEA director general reported on 27th Feb. , 28th April about the activities that Iran is still practicing. Sanction on 8 June, 31 August and 14 November 2006 was that IAEA suspended the use of enriched Uranium, which Iran did not, acted upon, it did not showed any cooperation with IAEA board. Under the article of 41:
Without delaying any further, Iran should obey the resolutions made by the IAEA board, and should take possible steps to satisfy the IAEA board of governors. They should work in manner that they build their confidence and assure them that they will now work for peaceful purposes and for any destruction purpose. It was decided that, any how Iran should the proliferation sensitive nuclear activities and all states have to take necessary steps to supply and sale directly or indirectly by their territories. For each supply, sale or transfer of goods, technology, material items or anything should be covered by documents S/2006/814, S/2006/815.
All states should support Iran with technical assistance, training, financial assistance, investments or with any facilities it need. Iran will not export any items in documents of S/2006/814 and S/2006/815. Tehran is the world’s number 4th oil exporter and wants peaceful nuclear generation of electricity. But the western power thinks that Iran is secretly trying to assemble warheads. A senior diplomat close to the IAEA said on Friday that Iran wrote to the Vienna based agency asking for the ouster of its Iran section head Chris Charlier. A Belgian.
Last year Iran banned him from traveling to Muslim countries. An official news agency IRNA quoted an Iranian diplomat as saying Iran had asked the IAEA to delete the name of a Belgian officer from the list of the workers allowed to work in Iran. Iran and (IAEA) are informed that this inspector disclosed confidential Iranian nuclear information to inappropriate countries. Although this was supposed to be kept between Iran and India Iran’s nuclear ambition is threatening many countries. A deadly regime in Tehran is threatens Iran’s neighborhoods and the world as well.
This is also been noticed that taking such an action Iran is encouraging its leaders to advance their ambitions, and this has also been noticed that they are supporting terrorism. Including a close existence of Israel, Iran is also threatening them. Israel claims that Iran would use their nuclear power against Israel; it further adds that Iran has missiles with great range and would are built to attack Israel and would be used as warheads between the two countries. And Israel’s doubt was confirmed when Iran publicly paraded some banners which were anti-Israel and some said “Death to Israel” and “Israel should be wiped out the map”.
Iranian leaders and its president feel that Israel has no right to exist. Israel should be finished as soon as possible and their nuclear power would help them making their dream come true. But Iran also says that its nuclear energy is built for some secret purposes that they would never disclose their secrets to the world. A good relationship between Iran and Hezbollah organization, threatens the most to the Israeli, because Hezbollah is involved in many violent conflicts with Israel. So, Hezbollah can take its revenge by involving with Iranians and they would, some day or other attack Israel.
Iran has vowed to attack Israel some day, no matter if United States attack it or not. In the year 2005, the Prime minister of Israel put the Israeli Defense Forces on high alerts, because of the danger that they might experience air strikes from Israel. Furthermore, it is developing a weapon of choice for nuclear delivery purposes known as Shahab-3 missile, and it ranges most in Middle East. Another report says that Iran is also collaborating with North Korea on a missile of a long range i. e. BM-25. They want this missile to range in Africa, India, Russia, Europe and China.
This deadly terrorism should not be promoted; Security Council should ban this at once. Iran is spreading this dangerous fear world wide. It is promoting crime and opposing peace. By making such weapons it is threatening death to the whole nation. Iran is threatening international peace and security. Iran has so much human potential, but it using its potential and talent in a wrong way, it is misleading its workforce and teaching corruption and terrorism to its country itself. They further say that “US is trying to repress us; they are tying to keep us down and keep us backward, make us a second-class nation.
And we have an ability to develop a nuclear industry, and we are being told that we are not good enough, or we can’t”. Such statements would make anybody boil with anger. And that was the same case with the politicians. Many countries voted to the IAEA, that IAEA should report Iran to the Security Council. Countries include; Members of European Union, Arab, Egypt, Yemen, Japan, Sri Lanka, countries from Asia such as Korea, Australia and three to four developing countries. Countries have shown concern about Iran’s nuclear program and they desperately want to resolve the issue.
The day by day growing isolation has become a major problem than not only diplomatic embarrassment. It has also started to hurt the public of Iran as the market has already started to impose some factor problems. Due to poor economic policy and nuclear dispute Britain’s high rating has discouraged and downgraded the overlook for Iran from stable to very unstable. Some known banks have cautiously refused to do businesses in Iran due to above crisis. These banks include, Union Bank of Switzerland and Credit Suisse.
Multinational corporations such as British Petroleum who were planning to invest their capital in Iran have changed their minds and are now planning to invest their capital elsewhere other than Iran. Both inflation and unemployment remained very high in Iran according to International Monetary Fund. The promise made by the President of Iran to improve the life of Iranian people failed, and instead of working to fulfill the promise he made progress stick on his home made rule and celebrated for the technology that is not directly linked with the lives of ordinary people in Iran.
“Nuclear energy is very crucial for Iran’s future” claimed by some Iranian leaders. They do not want to start a dispute about Iran’s right to peaceful nuclear power. Besides they want us to see the following facts: • Enriched uranium is needed for nuclear power plants as told by some leaders without knowing the fact that they do not have any nuclear power plants. The one under construction at Bushehr have signed a long term contract that it will receive fuel from Russia. • Capability is needed to enrich uranium to be self sufficient as said by some Iranian leaders.
But in Iran the natural uranium reserves are only efficient to power a single reactor less than seven years. After completing construction of average sized reactor programs Iran would soon run out of uranium even after adding special reserves. • Some investment would have been done in Iran’s immense reserve of natural gas the second largest in the world if only the Iranian leaders were serious about bringing an energy change. Instead of that at Wellhead a high amount and a high percentage in being wasted without any purpose.
• Iranian leaders would have followed the lead of South Korea and Sweden if they were at all serious about the energy change. There are twenty nuclear power plants in Korea. North Korea and Sweden are advanced countries neither of them is enriched with uranium but still Sweden gets 40 percent of its electricity from nuclear power. According to some people Iran needs nuclear weapons for its own security and safety but a nuclear arms race can easily be ignited in the Middle East due to atomic desires of Iran’s leadership.
For a region already so violent and volatile it is a dangerous aspect to be raised. The people of Iran would certainly not get more secured. By useful diplomatic negotiations with other countries, resulting in constructive engagements and having respect for international obligations the security of Iran is best completed rather than nuclear confrontation. The objective of Iran is to secure a diplomatic solution. This means that to convince and approve the leadership in Iran to make a fundamental choice, a choice of cooperation and negotiation over confrontation and defiance of nuclear power.
Further isolation and sanction is the result which will be achieved by the path which the Iranian leaders have taken. There is one more path that can be accomplished that is one opened by the European Union, elaborated by the Russian Federation and Is supported by the United States. This is what the Europe offered last August. The Proposals are: • “reaffirmed Iran’s inalienable rights to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, exercised in conformity with the NPT; • offered Iran assurances of fuel supply for light water power and research reactors;
• met Iran’s desire to expand international cooperation in the civil nuclear field; • offered a new political and security relationship based on cooperation; • proposed a new framework for expanded economic and technological cooperation. The leaders in Tehran turned down this offer. It is time for them to reconsider, to listen to international concerns, and to think about the best interests of the Iranian people”. (http://vienna. usmission. gov/_index. php? cmd=cmdFrontendSpeechesAndRelatedDocumentsDetail&speechid=181)
Comprising of the members of the Revolutionary Council, during the initial days of the Revolution, an open letter by five reformists advised the leadership to “wake up from the dream to come to its senses and should be brave enough to accept reality. ” To express their concerns about the nuclear program and to call him to take responsibility for nuclear policies, a group of clerics met with the Supreme Leader. In a conference recently held in Tehran the head of Iran’s Expediency Council Hashemi Rafsanjani, said that “Iran’s nuclear dossier is not going on the right track.
” Iran needed to proceed with more “straight forward” and should adopt a more “balanced” approach. ” Said by the former Secretary of Iran’s Supreme National Council. He warned and stated that the country was paying “a heavy price as a penalty” for the tactics adopted by President Ahmadinezhad. This discussion is good and should be encouraged both among the Iranian people and within the ruling elite to achieve improved result. As Iran’s leaders are determined, the rest of the world must also be equally determined to defend itself against all issues of Iranian threat.
In order to gain access to materials and technology for nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile delivery system we need to bar the regime. To end proliferation traffic we need to expand, widen and deepen cooperation under the Proliferation Security Initiative. We need to strengthen cooperation with our neighboring countries which day by day feel increasingly threatened by Iran’s ambitions and desires. The Israeli government tried its level best to convince the United Nations. In September 2006, the foreign minister of Israel addressed to United Nations General Assembly and accused Iran of working to nuke Israel.
He further said that Iran spoke so openly and proudly that it will destroy Israel and does their best to erase Israel’s name from the map. By such actions Iran is not only threatening Israel but it’s threatening the entire world. Bush also delivered his thoughts that; these moves are of no use. Iran should immediately stop such actions. Some US officials and Secretary of Condoleezza Rice are trying to unite Sunni Arab and Israel against Iran to have an aggressive approach to Tehran. He further said that when we talk about Iran’s Nuclear Program, it brings out a feeling of fear for Israel and many Arab countries.
He is still trying for a deep and courteous solution. He marked his words in the National Public Radio “The message that we are working to send to the Iranian regime and the Iranian people is that you will become increasingly isolated, if you continue to pursue a nuclear weapon”. This statement clearly shows that President Bush is also not in favor of Iran, he is also trying to convince Iranian regime that they should immediately stop their nuclear actions otherwise their people would get isolated. (http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/29/AR2007012900464_pf. html)
Bush with his administration officers discussed that Iran has the upper hand in the region today, that’s why it is behaving in such a manner. Iran’s president is forgetting that a couple of years ago Iran was also situation when Saddam Hussein was on the boarder with Taliban ready to attack Tehran. Tony Blair also said that Iran is posing a major threat to the Middle East. At his monthly media he said that Iranian regime is causing a major problem. He further mentioned that “there is no point in hiding the fact that Iran poses a major strategic threat to the cohesive threat to the cohesion of the entire region.
Iran is deliberately causing maximum problems for moderate governments and for ourselves in the region- in Palestine, in Iraq and in Lebanon. He added in describing a deadlock over the Palestinian, you only have to see what is happening in Iran over the last couple of days to realize how important it is that all people of moderation in the Middle East try to come together and sort out the problems”. (http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6172347. stm) Tony Blair showed great concern over the topic.
He added many details on the topic, such as Iran did when their foot was in Israel’s shoe. He said that US troops in Baghdad was totally different from the UK troops in Basra. There was so much of violence in the US but the UK withdrawal did not affect by the US decisions Now the responsibility goes to the media. Media can play a big role in convincing not the government but may be people, who can surely participate and actions to convince the government. On December 13 2006, A newspaper mentioned that Iran’s President said that “Israel days are numbered”.
If Israel has no way out, it should make its defense forces more strong or else try to make good relations with Iran. It can also convince the Security Council to provide Israel with some more military protection or should force the Security Council to get more arsenals that can protect them from Iran’s bombardment. The Security Council should provide the country with more security that so the people feel more secured. If the United Nations Security Council step back and behave reluctantly, there is a possibility that Israeli might start migrating.
It can also give rise to crimes and terrorism in the country, which not only Israel but the world would suffer with.
Anthony H. Cordesman. (1999). Iran’s Military Forces in Transition. Praeger/Greenwood. Shai Feldman. (1997). Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the Middle East. MIT Press. United States Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. (2005). Iran: Weapons Proliferation, Terrorism, and Democracy. Library of Congress. Glen Segell. (2004). Disarming Iraq. Glen Segell. DIANE. (2000). Getting Ready for Nuclear-Ready Iran. DIANE Publishing.
Iran’s Nuclear Program on the Security Council’s Agenda – Speeches and Related Documents – U. S. Mission to International Organizations in Vienna (UNVIE) http://vienna. usmission. gov/_index. php? cmd=cmdFrontendSpeechesAndRelatedDocumentsDetail&speechid=181 Accessed February 4, 2007 Bush Warns Iran Against Action in Iraq – washingtonpost. com http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/29/AR2007012900464_pf. html Accessed February 4, 2007 BBC NEWS | Politics | Iran a ‘major threat’, says Blair http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6172347. stm Accessed February 4, 2007