Differences between Timarchic, Oligarchic, Democratic and Tyrannical Governments These four types of governments is what Socrates describe as unjust soul, as he referred his analogy between city and soul, he points these types of governments as unjust souls. This process of social decline that makes us identify the cause of the fall of a just city is the same injustice created by the selfishness of the rulers which only require collaboration by citizens, that is, a forced suppression part of them, which only defines itself injustice.
An easier way to identify justice / injustice is the fact that it is a city which is larger than the soul, as well as determine the tyranny, the depths of injustice. Tyranny, a despotic abuse of power, when misery as a whole is seen, the lowest human condition itself. A complete chaos ruled by indiscipline, that is why power need to be seized, to control human deepest desires, there is when it comes discontent of the people, which will seek to remove it but they will not because it has so much power that they cannot threaten him.
The tyrant always will fee afraid of his self-imprisonment caused by his lawless. Democracy, government by the power, but unstable after all, because of his absence of restraint; opening the door to the tyrant, democratic man is full of desires, which are growing even more thanks to the tendency or instinct to survive by human nature, this is what causes the ruler to take advantage of citizens, starting a war against perceived enemies when in fact the real enemies are themselves against their government.
Oligarchy, power vested on a dominant class, unstable in an intrinsic way, clearly distinction between rich and poor. It doesn’t give importance to specific values, temperance and moderation because dominating wasteful tendencies to accumulate money. Timarchy, even the ruling principle is honor and Plato resembled in Sparta, to which Plato feel admiration (Klosko 1993, 63), he feels it has certain details. Generations of guardians or auxiliaries that get to an upper level as rulers, become interested in power and wealth; but they seek to attain it primarily by means of military conquest and the acquisition of honors, instead of intellectual means.
Plato did not believe average people were intelligent enough to make decisions about government. According to Plato he prefer a form of government in which philosophers are in charge. Only philosophers have been trained and disciplined to govern with the best interests of the republic in mind; other forms of government necessarily create an ‘us-versus-them’ dichotomy that is ultimately unsustainable.
This form of government that he called a Philosopher King, the one in which he ruler was the only person intelligent and educated enough to rule wisely, fairly, and without self-interest, as all they were interested in acquiring was knowledge, not wealth or power. They would therefore use their reason to rule fairly, benefiting all by making the best possible decisions on all matters.