Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into two categories: transportation of goods and transportation of people. In many countries licensing requirements and safety regulations ensure a separation of the two industries. The nature of road transportation of goods depends, apart from the degree of development of the local infrastructure, on the distance the goods are transported by road, the weight and volume of the individual shipment and the type of goods transported. For short distances and light, small shipments a van or pickup truck may be used. For large shipments even if less than a full truckload, a truck is more appropriate.
In some countries cargo is transported by road in horse-drawn carriages, donkey carts or other non-motorized mode (see animal-powered transport). Delivery services are sometimes considered a separate category from cargo transport. In many places fast food is transported on roads by various types of vehicles. For inner city delivery of small packages and documents bike couriers are quite common. People (Passengers) are transported on roads either in individual cars or automobiles or in mass transit/public transport by bus / Coach (vehicle). Special modes of individual transport by road like rickshaws or velotaxis may also be locally available.
About Norway Norway is a Scandinavian country that lies to the north of continental Europe on the western seaboard. It has a border to the east with Sweden, but also has a shorter border in the north with Finland and another in the far north with Russia. Norway also has administrative responsibility for the territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen and asserts territorial claims in Antarctica. There are three official languages in Norway is Bokmal and Nynorsk are used throughout Norway and Sami is found in the north. However, most Norwegians also speak some English and many speak excellent English.
The country is generally rugged, with a high central plateau dissected by deep, long, narrow fjords and fertile valleys. The south-west [Vestlandet] in contrast, is generally of much lower elevation and much less rugged. This area is very important agriculturally. As the percentage of arable land in the country is only 3% of the total, the significance of the region to the agricultural output of the country can be appreciated. Norway is a hereditary constitutional monarchy with a democratically elected government. The country gained its independence in 1905, celebrated on its national day on May 17.
The constitution is from 1814. The Head of State is King Harald V. Although the monarch’s position is largely ceremonial, the Government. The Storting has 165 members. The national government operates through Departments of State. Local government is organised into Counties. Flag Norway Norway Flag Meaning: The colours of the Norway flag are believed to have been influenced by the flags of France, the United States and Britain and are considered the colours of liberty and independence. The cross is common to most Scandinavian flags, and represents Norway’s link to the other Scandinavian countries.
Norway Flag History: The Norway flag was first adopted on July 17, 1821 and is based on the Danish flag, with a blue cross placed within the white cross of the Danish flag. Norway was ruled by Denmark from the mid-15th century until 1814, when it joined a union with Sweden until 1905. The Norwegian flag had an emblem representing the Norway-Sweden union from 1844 until 1898, when the government re-introduced the Norway flag, minus the Union symbol. A 1905 Norway referendum voted overwhelmingly to end the country’s union with Sweden. Interesting Norway Flag Facts:
The flag of 1821 was an idea of Frederik Meltzer’s, a Danish Member of Parliament. He got the idea of adding a blue cross to the Danish flag during a session of parliament. The discussion was how the flag could represent Norway’s past association with Denmark and its union with Sweden. We can assume the red and white came from the Danish flag and the blue from the Swedish flag. The red, white and blue colour combination was appealing to Parliament because it represented the colours of liberty, as in the flags of France, the USA, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.
A rumour that Frederik Meltzer’s young son Gerhard created the idea behind the Norway flag is false. Transportation at Norway All forms of transportation are found in Norway, but some unique features of Norwegian terrain have caused certain transportation types to be especially prominent in the country. Because of the deep fjords and steep mountains, roads and bridges are not always sufficient in moving vehicles across the countryside. The main solutions for traversing fjords have been tunnels and ferries.
Transport in Norway is highly influenced by Norway’s low population density, narrow shape and long coastline. Norway has old water transport traditions, but road, rail and air transport have increased in importance during the 20th century. Due to the low population density, public transport is somewhat less built out in rural areas of Norway, however public transport in, and around cities is well developed. In the year 2000, the world’s longest road tunnel was opened near Bergen, Norway on the country’s west coast. The L? rdal Tunnel is about 15 miles (24 km) long.
That’s so long that every six kilometers, they had to install large caverns with special lighting that looks like daylight. Without the large caverns to break up the tunnel, many people would become dazed or fall asleep. The main governing body is the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications, which performs operations through numerous subsidiaries. Tasks related to public transport and some roads have been delegated to the counties and municipalities. Most infrastructures are publicly owned, while most operations are performed by private companies; public transport is subsidized.
In average each Norwegian transported themselves for 70 minutes each day. 8% of passenger transport was made by public transport; road transport is the dominant mode of transport. The transport sector was responsible for 4. 1% of the gross national product and 6. 6% of employment in 2006. Ferries are also important in the Norwegian transportation system. Cars, trucks, buses, and pedestrians are able to board ferries and be taken across fjords or between cities. This can often trim hours of back tracking off of a road route. More common forms of transportation are also found across Norway.
Bus, streetcar, light rail, passenger rail, and air transportation form a network that keeps Norway’s cities connected. Public transport Norway The public transport system, metro, tram, bus and ferry, Oslo operated by companies belonging to the municipality of Oslo Sporveier. There are also trains operated by state-owned companies, Norges statsbaner. All public transport use the same ticket system. This ticket system allows users who have turned ordinary ticket to travel transportation in the city without charging more in 1 hour.
In 2004, a total of 160 million trips were made by public transport, 85% of which were operated by subsidiaries Oslo Sporveier and 15% by bus companies and private ferry under contract. Tram system, Oslotrikken, consisting of six routes which criss-cross the town and on to the suburban areas. Metro system, known as T-Bane, has 6 contact routes in eastern and western suburbs. The six routes met in an underground tunnel in the center of Oslo. A half loop underground route was opened in August 2006 that contact Ulleval the northwest and Carl Berners plass in the east.
Sinsen station opening in August 2006 marked the completion of the loop trails that connect the two new stations and Storo Nydalen which has been in operation for two years. RFID ticketing system with automatic rotary gate barriers are used. * Passenger transport Since 1965, the number of journeys has almost quadrupled. Journeys with private cars account for a large part of the increase. 54 per cent of the population of Norway own a car, and measured in terms of both the number of journeys and person kilometres, the use of private cars has increased more than fivefold since 1965.
Journeys by public transport accounted for 10 per cent of the population’s travels in 2008. Almost two thirds of all journeys by public transport were by bus, and one third by railroad vehicles. The typical Norwegian travelled an average of 7 km every day using public transport. * Goods transport Business activity changes over time, and this also has an impact on the goods transport. The total goods volume has almost tripled as from 1965 to 2008, while the transport performance measured in goods kilometres has increased six fold.
For goods transport by lorry, the average length of journey per tonne in domestic transport has almost quadrupled since 1965 to the present day. In 2008, the average length of journeys was 58 km per tonne. The goods volume via ship has more than doubled, but the distance that goods are transported is considerably shorter than previously. Measured in tonnes, rail transport has remained steady since 1965. But the goods are transported over longer distances and the transport performance is more than doubled. Goods transport by air remained relatively modest throughout the period.
The transport of oil and gas from the continental shelf to the mainland accounts for around one-fifth of all goods transport measured in tonnes. Functions Transport at Norway Dog Sleds In Northern Norway, close to the Arctic Circle, embark on dog-sledding as much as four or six dogs trips that bring through gorgeous winter landscapes, and swish across scenic routes. The people in the north use reindeer sledges. The people in the eastern and southern cities use dog sledges. Anyway, the coolest people(mostly living in the west) use polar bears.
This is becoming a problem when some people can’t train their polar bears and they become dangerous to other people. Train Norwegian State Railways (Norges Statsbaner) operates an excellent, though limited, system of lines connecting Oslo with Stavanger, Bergen, Andalsnes, Trondheim, Fauske and Bodo; lines also connect Sweden with Oslo, Trondheim and Narvik. Most train stations offer luggage lockers for Nkr20 to Nkr50 and many also have baggage storage rooms. Most long-distance day trains have 1st- and 2nd-class seats and a buffet car or refreshment trolley service.
Public phones can be found in all express trains and most Inter-City trains. Doors are wide and there’s space for bulky luggage, such as backpacks or skis. Reservations cost an additional Nkr35 and are mandatory on a number of long-distance routes, including between Oslo and Bergen. * Norway’s First Light-Rail Transit Line The Bergen Light Rail, is a gigantic environmental project. First of all, the Light Rail is a very environmentally friendly means of transport. It also leads to increased building of houses and shops along the railway, making it possible for more people to use it.
The result is major environmental gain for Bergen. A general light-rail system will strengthen the public transport system in the Bergen area. The City Council has therefore decided that The Bergen Light Rail will be the backbone in Bergen’s future public transport system. * Intercity trains / Long-distance trains The intercity trains services are offered on the Bergen Line, the Dovre Line and the Sorland Line. The four day trains are operated with Class 73 electric multiple units (formerly branded as Signatur) or with traditional locomotive pulled trains (electric locomotives).
A night train service with WLAB2 sleeping coaches is also offered on these lines. On the Nordland Line between Trondheim and Bodo NSB operates using diesel locomotives Di4, making it the only line still serviced by such for regular passenger service. Boat Norway’s excellent system of ferries connects otherwise inaccessible, isolated communities with an extensive network of car ferries crisscrossing the fjords; express boats link the country’s offshore islands to the mainland. Most ferries accommodate motor vehicles, but express coastal services normally take only foot passengers and cyclists, as do the lake steamers.
Highways ferries are subsidised and therefore aren’t overly expensive at least in a Norwegian context, but long queues and delays are possible at popular crossings in summer. They do, however, run deep into the night, especially in summer, and some run around the clock, although departures in the middle of the night are less frequent. Details on schedules and prices for vehicle ferries and lake steamers are provided in the timetables published by the Norwegian Tourist Board, or Rutebok for Norge. Bus & Tram Buses on Norway’s extensive long-distance bus network are comfortable and make a habit of running on time.
Nor-Way Bussekspress operates the largest network of express buses in Norway, with routes connecting most towns and cities, from Mandal in the far south to Alta in the far north. There are also a number of independent long-distance companies that provide similar prices and levels of service. Considerably cheaper are buses operated by Lavprisekspressen, which sells tickets over the internet. At the time of writing, it only operates along routes from Oslo to Bergen, Trondheim and Kristiansand, but let’s hope that the number of routes expands and that the competition drives down the prices of other companies.
In the meantime, Oslo to Bergen costs as little as Nkr149 with Lavprisekspressen; the cheapest fare with Nor-Way Bussekspress is Nkr700. In northern Norway, there are several Togbuss (train-bus) routes, while elsewhere there’s also a host of local buses, most of which are confined to a single fylke. Most local and even some long-distance bus schedules are drastically reduced everywhere in Norway on Saturday, Sunday and in the low. Nearly every town in Norway supports a network of local buses, which circulate around the town centre and also connect it with outlying areas.
In many smaller towns, the local bus terminal is adjacent to the train station, ferry quay and/or long-distance bus terminal. Fares range from Nkr16 to Nkr25 per ride. Air Airlines in Norway Norway has nearly 50 airports with scheduled commercial flights, from Kristiansand in the south to Longyearbyen and Ny Alesund (Svalbard) in the north. For a full list visit www. avinor. no. Due to the time and distances involved in overland travel, even budget travellers may want to consider a segment or two by air. The five airlines operating on domestic routes: * Coast Air
* Danish Air Transport * Norwegian * SAS Braathens * Wideroe Bicycle Given Norway’s great distances, hilly terrain and narrow roads, only serious cyclists engage in extensive cycle touring, but those who do rave about the experience. Assuming you’ve steeled yourself for the challenge of ascending mountain after mountain, the long-distance cyclist’s biggest headache will be tunnels, and there are thousands of them. Most of these, especially in the Western Fjords, are closed to nonmotorised traffic,although not all cases there are outdoor bike paths running parallel to the tunnels.
If no such path exists, alternative routes may involve a few days’ pedalling around a long fjord or over a high mountain pass. Rural buses, express ferries and nonexpress trains carry bikes for various additional fees (around Nkr100), but express trains don’t allow them at all and international trains treat them as excess baggage (Nkr250). Nor-Way Bussekspress charges half the adult fare to transport a bicycle. The Norwegian government takes cycling seriously enough to have developed an official Cycling Strategy, among the primary goals of which are to increase cycling in larger Norwegian cities.