Theories of Crime Paper Example

Societal factors are the most influential determinants of personality development in human life. They form direct and indirect attributes that use force, compliance and advancement of subjective norms, values, rewards, approval or recognition necessary for direct coexistence (Carlo, 2005). Though at times criticized due to lack of approval for cognitive individual capacity which rationalizes actions via ethical delineation of all activities in human behavior, some have become part of the accepted systems that form human existence.

Societal factors are major activities that happen in the extended community realms with little or no impact from the people living in those regions (Rosen et al, 2007). While some may have temporary effects on people’s personality, others are long term and permanently change people’s livelihoods. This paper evaluates war, technology and governance as major societal factors that determine people’s immediate and subsequent personality development patterns.

Finally, it examines how personality trait theories can be adopted to account for the same factors and gives holistic recommendations that act as pointers for positive personality development. 2. War. Since historic times, generations after generations have experienced different types of wars in their lifetimes. Others have been directly or indirectly been involved with the same wars in quest for freedom, equitable distribution of resources, recognition or ethnic hatred. However, over 80% of those who have experienced the effects of war would have wished to avoid it due to the negative repercussions it impacts to them.

? Hostility recurrence. Carlo (2005) argues that war is associated with hostilities and abuse of human rights in the battle fields. Majority of the children and who experience war have higher probability of perpetuating the same hostilities in their later years in life. After the II World War, the recurrence of rape cases and armed wildness from the young people was very high. In his personality development theory Freud argued that experiences which happen to people determine their later association with others and characteristic of their different personalities.

As Freud explains, war brings people face to face with unreasoned massacres and inhumane killings that posts similar experiences in their minds. The sight of dads, mothers, brothers, sisters, neighbors and friends being butchered mercilessly produces hate towards others and may cause permanent mental problems to the individuals. After the Rwanda 1994 genocide, majority of the people still live in fear while others adopted solitary lifestyles in disbelief that their neighbors could harm them in such a manner.

In the war torn Middle East, people have developed hostile personalities against their previously very friendly neighbors. Being very dynamic, personalities easily change to reflect the current situations while past good ones are easily forgotten (Rothbart, 2007). ? Loss of life and property. Loss of property and lives has made people to assume poor lifestyles after war with others having to stay in refugee camps to save their lives. During the war in Afghanistan and Vietnam, thousands of refugees who live in camps are no longer independent and rely on relief food.

There is total despair and selflessness with others lacking meaning for living. Their lives are hopeless and feeble making them to have limited internalized conscience necessary for holistic development. They lack self confidence and belief they are eternally doomed compared to others living happy lifestyles (Lawler? Row & Piferi, 2006). 2. Technology Technological advancement has been part of the core aspect that contributes to the dynamism of the human personality development with time. Through technology, it has been accepted that people are able to hop into the next social status in the society with ease.

? Modernization 21st century has been characterized by new advancements in technology that assists people to do their work with ease and communicate more often thereby sharing ideas and feelings with speed. Through technology, it is easier to work and relate with others thus understanding their minds and opinions. Culture of consultations that improves rational thinking and decision making at different instances has been cultivated. Besides, it is possible to incorporate others in all aspects of life due to availability of more information in the internet and better accessibility.

Other people beliefs moods and cultures are easily curved out to ensure harmonic adaptive personalities compatible with others (Carlo, 2005). ? Education. Good personality has been associated with the ability of the people to assume higher education status which is considered to be a rich niche for reasoning and improving one’s lifestyle as well as for the other people. With technology, it is easy to access better and higher levels of education with time (Bradberry, 2007). Availability of online resources and distant learning has contributed to the large numbers of people getting literate in the society.

Regions with high levels of education like US, Britain and Scotland are also highly developed with advanced mechanism of solving conflicts and ability to live and tolerate one another. Besides, there is higher respect for human rights and inclusive adaptive profiles for the people at the local and international levels (Caspi et al, 2005). However, different third world countries like Democratic Republic of Congo, Somali, Sri-Lanka and Afghanistan have low literacy levels which lead to selfish personalities and disregard for neighbors. 3. Governance

Governance in the society reflects the people and the communities in the society. Its policies and regulatory framework acts as a guideline for the people to assume particular personalities in the society. From an early age, majority of the governments demands special care for the children and mandatory education for mental and physical development. This models people from an early age on the best methods of approach to issues and problems in life. Therefore, they act as initial mentors of people’s brains at the early stages of life (Fox & Calkin, 2003).

Besides, governance forms key roles in ensuring high levels management at all levels and structures and reduces possibility of hate among the people in the society. It cultivates the direct seeds of friendship and virtues of love and responsibilities among its people. Government that supports its people and carefully derives better means for addressing their problems promotes development of harmony and increased ability for coexistence. US government promotes peoples democracy and gender equality while ensuring high standards for its citizens.

This was reflected in the last general election in US that was full of vigor and high profile fraternity among the American people (Carlo, 2005). However, governments that are led by bureaucrats have been centers of articulating hate among their people in the society. Marred by massive corruption there is high levels of tribal hatred for the people in Sudan, Zimbabwe and Gaza regions. 4. Psychoanalytic theories. In conclusion it is clear that those social factors in the society have vast impacts on personality development at all stages of human life.

In his theory, Sigmund Freud indicates that all factors that affect personality development are interlinked with intrinsic influences and external demands forming the baseline of the dynamics (Fox & Calkin, 2003). According to the theory it is clear that the pleasure and reality principle forces the people to react different towards war, policies and technology which they encounter (Rosen et al, 2007). With no option of evading the repercussions of war and technology development, people must intrinsically adopt personalities in their lifestyles that will assist them to get back to terms with life and assume new demands respectively.

Governance in the society act as an external force that imposes unto the people in the society ideals that are directed towards their holistic interaction between its citizens (Bradberry, 2007). As indicated earlier, it acts to nurture positive or negative personalities for the people at all levels with the lowest being the most important. Therefore, societal factors must be carefully articulated with the negative ones being avoided and the positive ones like development and good governance articulated. 5. Reference list.

Bradberry, T. (2007). “The Personality Code. ” New York: Putnam. Carlo, G. (2005, April). Personality development: Personal and societal aspects in the 21st century. Annual Review of Psychology, 66(23), 102-135. Caspi, A. , Roberts, B. W. , Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality Development: Stability and Change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(49), 453? 484. Fox, N. & Calkins, S. (2003, March). The development of self? control of emotion, Intrinsic and extrinsic influences. Motivation and Emotion, 27(1), 7? 26.

Rothbart, M. (2007, August). Temperament, development, and personality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(4), 207? 212 Rosen, P. , Milich, R. , & Harris, M. (2007, May). Victims of their own cognitions: Implicit social cognitions, emotional distress, and peer victimization. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28(3), 211? 226. Lawler? Row, K. , & Piferi, R. (2006, October). The forgiving personality: Describing a life well lived? Personality and Individual Differences, 41(6), 1009? 102