The Republic of Kazakhstan

The judicial Power is extended to all cases and disputes arising under the Constitution, laws and other legal acts, international treaties of the Republic. Decisions, judgments and other decisions of the courts are binding on the whole territory of the Republic. The local authorities There are two types of local government in the Republic of Kazakhstan local Mazhilis and Akim (Governor). Depu

The Republic of Kazakhstan declared its independence on the 16th of December in 1992 and the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed and became the Republic of Kazakhstan. The first constitution was adopted on the 28th of January in 1993. The Current constitution became strong and was accepted on the 30th of August in 1995. Based on the Constitution Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government, which has three independent branches of power: executive, legislative and judicial.

President is the head of state and defines the main directions of internal and foreign policy. The president also ensures coordinated functioning of all the branches of power. President is elected for five years by general vote of citizens over 18 years. Executive power Executive power is the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Government heads the system of ministries and provides guidance to them. Government is a collegial body, and in all its activities is responsible to the President of the Republic. The Government of Kazakhstan has the main function.

It is to develop the main directions of social and economic policy, defense and security policy, also it is develops country’s budget and organizes management of state property and develops the foreign policy of the Republic. Legislative power Legislative power is provided by the parliament of two houses. The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the highest representative organ the Republic which is performing legislative functions in the state. The Parliament consists of two houses: the Senate (upper house) and the Mazhilis (lower house), acting on a constant basis. The Senate consists of deputies.

Each of them is representing one of the 14 areas of the country or one of the biggest cities and the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Fifteen members of the Senate are elected by the President with the need of presentation national, cultural and other important interests of society in the Senate. Mazhilis consists of one hundred and seven members elected by the national election. Member of the Parliament cannot be both a member of the Senate and the Mazhilis. Legislative power is effectively controlled by the president. Government is responsible to the president, but not to Parliament.

Judicial power Justice in the Republic of Kazakhstan is carried only by the court. Judicial power is exercised through civil, criminal and other established by law forms. Usually the judge is a decision maker, but he or she does so using the law. It is important to notice that Criminal Court can sometimes performed by jury. Judicial power is used by the name of the Republic of Kazakhstan and is intended to protect the rights, freedoms and legal interests of citizens and organizations, ensuring compliance with the Constitution,

ties of local councils are elected by direct vote of this area citizen over 20 years old. At the same time Akims (governors) are elected by the president and are responsible only to him. Usually Akims are controlling and monitoring local Mazhilis.

Political parties Constitution of 1995 year allows political parties after they are legally registered, but no one party can impose their ideology on the state. The establishment of religious parties is forbidden. Although there are more than 100 associations and movements that can be considered by political parties, only a few of them are registered. Three parties were set up on the initiative of President Nazarbayev. These include “The Socialist Party”, which is the relative to “Communist Party of Kazakhstan”. In 1991 was registered “People’s Congress party”. And the third one is “Nur otan”- it is now considered as the party of president.

At first it was called “Party of National Unity”, after that it was divided on two parties “Asar” and “Otan”. At the end after the merge party was called “Nur Otan”. At this moment the governing party is “Nur Otan” and the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is also a member of this party. There are also Farmers Unions, the National Democratic Party “Zheltoksan”, association “Azamat” and “Azat”, which includes several smaller parties and opposition figures. The interests of the Russian minority express motion “Lad” and “Edinstvo”. Interests Kazakh nationalists movement expresses “Alash”.