The organizational structure

This report will illustrate what the future may hold for the year 2020 for the criminal justice system in terms of change, methodologies, and applications. The report will address various areas such as policing; the courts; corrections; and security. Sir Robert Peel is known as the creator of modern police. In 1829, Robert Peel created the London’s Metropolitan Police due to problems in poverty, disorder, ethnic conflict and crime. Walker and Katz (2004) discuss three new elements the London police introduced as the basis for modern policing.

These elements are a mission, strategy, and organizational structure. The mission of the new police was intended to prevent or deter crime rather than investigate it. In order to comply with the mission preventive patrol under strict supervision became the strategy to deter and prevent crime. According to Walker and Katz (2004), preventative patrol is where “officers would maintain a visible presence throughout the community by continuously patrolling fixed ‘beats’” (p. 5).

The organizational structure of the London police was built around the structure of the military. This form of policing was a quasi-military organization, which was given uniforms, ranks, and the requirements to obey the lawful commands of senior officers. Sir Robert Peel also developed nine principles of modern policing known as: • The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder • The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions

• Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public • The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force • Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law

• Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient • Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interest of community welfare and existence

• Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary • The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it These principles laid the framework in law enforcement history, which play a vital role in the diverse needs of the present day population. In 2020 policing at all levels of government will distinctly display Robert Peel’s principles.

“When public policing was first formally instituted in London in 1892, the emphasis was on preventing crime: The public and officers themselves regarded successful policing as the ‘absence of crime’” (Stephens, 2005). Policing today is complex due to social, economic, and technological matters. With these issues at an all time high along with diverse needs demands new and innovated approaches from police. These approaches will determine the future of policing.