A high unemployment level makes it difficult for the residents to acquire appropriate facilities that would minimize environmental pollution. For example, the loss of industrial jobs in Britain’s urban areas has increased the level of unemployment for people living in the deprived areas. Studies that have been carried out have shown that the majority of people who live in the deprived areas are unemployed, elderly, single parents, or those suffering from social exclusion (Black and Minority Ethnic Groups).
The mortality rate for children in these areas is almost twice the national average rate and the life expectancy much lower than the national average. The poor living conditions in the areas may become worse if the neighborhoods and estates continue to expend in future. These areas have therefore been considered as potential “permanent ghettos” if nothing is done to improve the conditions in the areas. On the other hand, other areas surrounding the cities have experienced social and economic revitalization through retailing developments, construction of cultural and tourist amenities and city promotion schemes.
For instance, Urban Development Corporations in Britain together with public- private partnerships have in the past fostered successful urban regeneration efforts in urban areas. The regeneration has had up- market homes, offices, shopping centers, and leisure facilities built in urban areas. The need to regenerate run- down neighborhoods and estates just like the other urban areas encouraged the urban renewal policies to promote the rehabilitation of the deprived areas ,bringing about changes in urban planning policies that earlier failed to revitalize the deprived areas.
Apart from the economic benefits that residents of these areas would enjoy after regeneration, the renewal programs would begin the process of re-integrating the poor and the socially excluded back into the British society. Radical changes in urban renewal policies were made necessary by the need to develop better and more productive renewal strategies that would address the multiple deprivations in urban areas. Urban renewal policies have also aimed at improving the living standards of the people by creating employment opportunities for those who are unemployed and live in the deprived areas.
For example, building social amenities such as schools and hospitals will provide employment opportunities for the residents. The issue of environmental degradation has been of great concern in developed countries. Developed countries have been accused of contributing to environmental degradation which has in turn led to global warming as a result of pollution. The environment around the estates and the run- down neighborhoods in areas surrounding cities has been experiencing a high level of environmental degradation .
Due to the environmental degradation in these areas, urban renewal efforts have aimed at promoting environmental conservation. Due to poverty and economic alienation of the run- down neighborhood residents from the British society, the people lack social amenities that should assist them to keep the environment clean. Environmental pollution has acted as a hazard to the people’s health. Research has shown that those living in deprived areas have a high incidence of diseases.
To make matters worse, the residents lack the proper medical facilities where their medical problems can be addressed. Radical changes in the urban renewal policies have been triggered by the dire need to improve the environmental conditions in urban areas. Environmental pollution has been an issue of concern in urban areas, and Britain has not been spared. The British government has had to promote environmental conditions by supporting urban renewal policies that promote clean urban environment.