The violence against women is one of the main concerns of holistic nursing care affecting virtually all societies of every culture. Violence against women is a growing social and health inclined problem that has always been emphasized by many programs dealing with such social dilemma; however, unfortunately according to most sociologists (Ricci 2006; Boyd 2004), violence against women has already become a part of human society even from the past.
Describing the population of the study, abused women are those violently, sexually, emotionally, psychologically or mentally deprived of every possible right as a human being and as a female gender (Boyd 2004, 824). According to Ricci (2006), the most common form of violence is actually the intimate partner violence that includes threats of physical or sexual violence especially when the threat becomes an instrument to control the person’s activity (p. 190). However, evidence suggests that single, divorced and separated women may actually be at greater risk for abuse than married women (Fishwick, Campbell and Taylor, 2004).
In addition, abuse and violence also occur among elderly women due to the vulnerability of their character and weaknesses (Boyd 2004, 824). Violence or abuse of any king permanently changes the person’s approach and construction of reality, which tarnishes every aspect of person’s womanhood. Most women are reluctant to expose the activities of their abusers, most frequently because of the fear of retaliation or further abuse, while some cases are due to material holds, familial ties (children), obsession to partner, etc. Significance of the Population
Violence against the vulnerable groups of women is a significant social and health concern, especially its vast occurrence in every society. Although, the actual prevalence of abused women cases is still considered unknown since various forms of violence exist, and most cases end up unreported. According to Arias (2004), an approximation of six million annually abused women occurs wherein 75% of these are identified as medical cases, including homicides. Meanwhile, according to CDC-NCIPC (Center for Disease Control; National Center for Inquiry Prevention Control, 2006), only 1.
5 million cases of women abuse are being reported and most of the time, grave cases are the ones being identified. According to Boyd (2004), despite of the presented annual or monitored statistics by health care or social institutions, the number of unexposed abused women still count as the highest probability (p. 824). On the other hand, statistical data considers sexual violence as the most predominant form of sexual violence among females. According to CDC-NCIPC (2006), 36. 2 % of reported abused women are due to sexual violence with reported physical injury that required medical attention.
Added to this data, sexual violence against women is most of the time implicated by a stranger, which actually accounts to 68% of overall reported sexual violence (CDC-NCIPC 2006). Meanwhile, in terms of race variations, West and Stevenson (2003) state 73% black women under the age of 18 have experienced forced penetration or physical form of violence, while 48% whites under the age of 18 have also experienced the same form of violence (p. 8). With all the presented incidences of women abuse in the United States, the social issue is indeed a significant problem to consider resolving. Discussion Health and Social Problem
One of the most commonly found statements from abused women in terms of their reason to stay is the personal and financial dependency, which they find as a critical and rational component for keeping the relationship. However, according to Videbeck (), most women who suffer violence of any forms possess condition of low self-esteem or self-compliance (p. 191). Violence against women directly damages the various components of womanhood, especially in terms of self-wellness and perceptions of ideal self. Nurses in the clinical setting most of the time encounter cases with mild to severe signs of physical abuse (e.
g. bruises, cuts, abrasions, etc. ); however, the most significant considerations are the psychological and emotional damage caused by the violence. According to Mohr (2005), the problems of women abuse warrant immediate nurse and health team’s attention, especially if signs of emotional, psychological or severe form of physical maltreatment have been assessed (p. 347). Psychological symptoms of women abuse include loss of self, incoherent speech presentation, self-induced amnesia, mild to severe presentations of anxiety behavior, and possibly fear of trusting (Ricci, 2006 p. 145).
Abused women most of the time suffer from multiple physical and psychological health problems; hence, immediate identification and formulation of potential nursing diagnosis are essential in the health care procedure. Psychological and social variables (e. g. social support, emotional encouragements, and information enrichments) are essential considerations of nurses, especially during the planning of health care interventions (Chesnay, 2005 p. 286). Initial concerns of abused women are most of the time psychological distress, reduction of trust levels and manifestations of depression symptoms.
Such conditions are not regarded as simple forms of psychological or mental incapacitations; rather, according to Macnee and McCabe (2006), cases of abused women involve complex situations and interrelated scenarios; hence, trusting and compliance to health care interventions are not supposed to be assumed (p. 313). According to Pillitteri (2006), initial manifestations of such condition may pertain to physical injuries, but nursing assessment should also address the emotional manifestations of abuse (p.
393). Most cases of abused women are diagnosed with chronic low self-esteem related to continuing physical and mental abuse, especially when the client manifest difficulty or trusting others as well as herself, and other anxiety behaviors. According to Pillitteri (2006), health considerations may also include powerlessness related to perception that it is impossible to break away from abusing partner, fear related to constant threat of violence and social isolation (p. 393). Evaluation of Current Strategies
Public and private sectors are considering diverse multi-cultural components in order to coincide within the ethical framework (CDC-NCIPC 2006). In addition, various professional participations are also included, especially during the client-health care practitioner interaction upon initial presentations of the case. According to Boyd (2004), women abuse is a significant health problem that crosses all ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic lines (p. 824). One of the most current strategies implemented to resolve the social problem is the CDC’s primary prevention and early intervention against abuse of women.
CDC’s PVAW (Preventing Violence Against Women) includes the support from federal agencies, state and local health departments, nonprofit organizations, academic institutions, international agencies and private industry. The strategy PVAW targets the primary prevention and broad activities for violence prevention, which include: (1) surveillance, (2) research, (3) capacity building, (4) communication, (5) partnership and (6) leadership (CDC-NCIPC 2006). From the given fundamentals of PVAW activity, CDC’s PVAW decentralizes its inclusions and management to various subsidiary projects that shall implement the overall ideals of the main project.
Some of these prevention strategies are CCDP (Culturally-Competent Demonstration Project), which develops and evaluates violence prevention among school-age youths and facilitate victim-community links in terms of service provisions, Green Book Project, which enhances child protective system, victims of intimate partner violence, and promoting guidelines for reporting abuse, and lastly, Choose Respect Campaign, which aims to prevent dating abuse among 11 to 14 years old children (CDC-NCIPC 2006). Proposed Community and Public Health Intervention
The roles of a nurse are essential in the primary prevention and resolution of the fight against sexual violence on women. If effective identification and intervention programs for abused women are to be established, it is essential that an understanding of the health problems and health care utilization patterns of this group be ascertained (Macnee and McCabe 2006 p. 313). Health interventions for community and public setting are proposed using Orem’s Self-Care model of nursing and the roles of a nurse.
As nurse manager, the nurse initially determines the possible self-care requisites, especially in terms of developmental conditions that need to be resolved by the patient. After which, the nurse manager also includes the possible self-care deficits present to the patient, especially during the initial signs of depression, distress and/or anxiety. The role of the nurse as an advocate further facilitates the link between private sectors or departments of the hospital, such as legal consultations or counseling that shall aid the patient from performing legal actions against the abuser.
Meanwhile, the role of the nurse as a teacher further fosters the cognitive development of the patient for her to restore the appropriate managing skills for her self-needs, as well as to obtain right knowledge about self, self-ideals, and understanding for the need to enhance self. The role of the nurse as a caregiver facilitates possible support modalities that the patient might require depending on the severity of the condition; however, it is also part of the caregiver to foster care independence on the part of the patient.
Lastly, the task of the nurse as a research plays well in researching the possible factors that can help the patient recover her self-care capacity as well as determining possible researchable components present in the patient’s case that can contribute to the campaign against violence on women. Conclusion Violence against women has become a crucial social and health issue due to the increasing statistical counts of reported cases; however, majority of real time occurrences of the case are left unreported.
Hence, violence against women has been targeted by different strategies and interventions that aim to end the cycle of vulnerability among these women. One of the most prominent public programs are CDC’s PVAW that decentralizes into various programs aiming to prevent violence, establish campaigns against the occurrences of violence, and further develop the strengths of the women against their abusers.
Lastly, the roles of the nurse as a public and community health provider extend to managing self-care requisites, advocating connections, enriching cognitive capacity of the patient, facilitating self-care and support modalities and initiating research to determine potential knowledge that can contribute to the campaign against violence on women.
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