Telecommunications. Computer network

A: Local Loop is simply a loop of copper wire that travels on a cable pair known as twisted pairs. Those pairs allows current to flow from the telephone to the central office and back this system was originally designed for voice transmission only using analog transmission technology on a single voice channel.

B: The Central Office serves a group of customers in a local area in which the customers are identified by the first three digits of their home phone number. All of these customers are physically connected to the central office through a twisted pair cable that is energized with DC voltage.

C: A Local Exchange is a local telephone company that provides service along with other local exchange locations within a geographical are so all the central offices and their customers can interconnect efficiently. These local exchange locations are also known as Local Access and Transport Area “LATA”.

D: The Point of Presence “POP” is the physical connection the provides an interconnection to a long distance carrier.

E: A Long Distance System is a telephone company that provides connections between local exchanges in different geographic areas. In the United States a long distance system is referred as interexchange carriers “IXC”.

F: Bell Telephone Company began installing fixed land lines in 1877 this fixed lines or landlines telephone system consists of two end points and a transmission. The endpoints are the telephone sets” the caller and the receiver of the call”.

When a caller dialed a number these numbers gets converted into a form of bits (1s and 0s of computer code) also called binary, regardless of the callers used a pulse or tone dial and that’s where the transmission begins. The call gets transmitted over a pair of twisted wires to a Central Office where then is transmitted into a facility known as Local Exchange depending on the destination of the call this call will be transfer to either another central office or to interexchange carrier before reaching the final destination.


Telecommunication Network Components

A cellular telephone system is used for wireless mobile telephones, they communicate through a series of fixed site radio transceivers also known as cell towers in which each operates over a base area where they transmit short analog or digital waves. These cells towers are connected to a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO). One of the great advantages of cellular systems is that these cell towers continuously monitor the signal strength received from each mobile phone, and when the signal strength gets weak it will automatically switch over to a physically closer cell tower where the signal is much stronger.

The first generation of voice was 1G, with a data speed of 14.4kbps, and it was based on a system of analogue mobile communication. This narrow band of analogue wireless network was used to give the mobile users the ability to communicate with other users via voice calls provided with basic circuit switching. Shortly after 1G was introduced technology evolved into 2G generation of cellular systems.

This second generation that was developed in the late 1980s changed the traditional analog system into digital technology were it provided more clarity to the phone conversations of both the 1G and 2G, since these voice calls had the capability to utilize the maximum bandwidth. The 2G generation brought the first data transmission over the network introducing the customers to new methods of communication known as Short Message Service (SMS) or text messages allowing the users to send messages of up to 160 characters.

As technologies matured users relied heavily on data services. To meet customers’ demands the International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000) introduced to the market the 3G or 3rd Generation of mobile communication allowing users to have voice, data and video (broadband) on their mobile devices. The 3G mobile systems is a digital broadband system that sends packet data that peaks to 3.1Mbps this allows faster communication services as well as Internet access anywhere and anytime with data rates of 384kbits or higher with video conferencing.

Technology then evolved from 3G into 4G, but today we can still see changed occurring within the 4G technology on a daily basis. Some examples of additional features are streaming multimedia such as live T.V programs as well as transmitting data and voice simultaneously. The 4G Data transmits broadband anywhere and anytime providing speeds of 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility communication such as trains and cars and others vehicles and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication such as pedestrians users or stationary users.

Telephone network Topologies

The topology of a network describes the various network nodes and how they interconnect but depending on geographical region since regulatory policies play a major role in exactly how voice network topologies are defined in each country. There are two primary methods of connecting switching nodes. The first approach is a mesh topology, in which all nodes are interconnected and the second approach is a hierarchical tree in which nodes are aggregated as the hierarchy traverses from the subscriber access points to the top of the tree.

A demarcation point is also known demarc or network terminating interface (NTI) it is the physical point at which the public network of a telecommunications carriers ends and the private network of a customer home or business begins.

The equipment is basically where the demarcation point or the networkterminating interface is terminated, this equipment is commonly known as the optical network terminal this is where the service provider supplies the user (customer) with the service requested. Wires are routed throughout the premises home or business to the optical network terminal.

The access network is where the network connects individual consumer or businesses to the telecommunications system the connections to switches are divided into two basic categories wish are lines and trunks. The individual telephone lines connect subscribers to the Central Office using twisted pairs of wires while the trunks are used to interconnect public switched telephone network switches (PSTN).

A regional network can be referred to as a metro area network (MAN) or a wide area network. In summary a (WAN) collects information from all local exchanges of service providers as well as information from many competing service providers, and move the information to points where it can be sent over multiple distances and for multiple service types where as a (WAN) is just a much larger version of the metro area network.

Cable TV

Is basically a series of companies in this industry broadcast television programs to the public and for cable or satellite subscribers.

Broadcast TV has evolved just as the fixed telephone lines from analog and radio wave signals into digitals. TV stations used to broadcast black and white signal from large antennas into consumer small antennas that would connect to users TV to receive the broadcasted signal.

During early years of CATV a community antenna simply consisted of a large receiver antenna that was placed on top of hills, mountains or large geographical areas away from high rise buildings to prevent the known limitations or obstacles of CATV broadcasting such as limited range this signals can travel as well as hills, high rise buildings that may prevent signals to reach the customers antennas.

Like every other technology CATV has evolved during years from adding amplifiers to boost signals into much more complex systems moving away from antennas into dedicated cooper lines to consumers home and business. Today technology keeps evolving to even much more complex systems such as fiber optics and even wireless technologies for a much faster and clear image in the consumers TVs.

The network access points (NAP) are located near the consumers’ homes or buildings. These network access points provide services such as CATV, phone and internet service to many consumers base on geographic regions these switching facilities serve the general public communities using multiple companies to make their own intercompany peering arrangements.

A Network Interface Device is basically the device outside the consumers’ house or business depending on the age of the home or business they can have a network interface device (NID) which provides termination for all services such as cable, internet and phone or they can have demarcation point for their land line use only.

Telecommunication Services

Telecommunications is basically the exchange of information over any distances using electronic signals converted into a form of bits (1s and 0s of computer code) also called binary. These telecommunications services are responsible for the information content of the message to be delivered from point to point.

RBOC is referred to a regional bell operating company. The RBOC is a term to describe one of the U.S. regional telephone companies that were created as a result of the breakup of the American telephone and telegraph companies due to a lawsuit against AT&T what the government consider a monopoly these new companies are Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, Bell South, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, Southwestern Bell and US West.

Unbundling is a term that has been commonly used to describe granting access to components of Telecom’s local loop networks for other telecommunicationservice providers.

A multiple system operator (MSOs) are recognize cable TV companies that offers television service to consumers using radio frequency over HFC (hybrid fiber copper) and RFoG (radio frequency over glass) networks. Some of these companies are Time Warner, Cable, Cablevision, Comcast, Charter Communications, and Cox Communications.

An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides access to the Internet to home and business for customers these Internet service provider support multiple forms of Internet access such as modem dial up to DSL and cable modem broadband service to dedicated T1/T3 lines.

Triple play is commonly referred to as “data package” and is basically a high speed internet connection that allows access to the World Wide Web where a variety of services the required low or high bandwidth emailing capability, various forms of video content and interactive entertainment.

Cloud computing basically means accessing any stored data, programs or storing data over the network instead of your own hard disk.