Technology and Economy

In the 1920’s, the Henry Ford automobile became popular with the average family. It changed the lives of Americans and everyone that wanted a better form of transportation. The most appealing part of this automobile was the affordability for the average family. In the next few years, most families had a car or were getting ready to buy one. Ford cars became more and more popular. They were creating a group of cars made for mass production and selling. The Ford company influenced many other people, and in the next few years there were many companies involved in making cars. The sale of the car effected technology in many ways.

One way is because it led to the advancement of mass production of the car and many other products. It also led to the development of the motorcycle. Its technology showed that they could apply it to a bike. (2) Invention of the Telephone - Technology - 1876 The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. He used the idea off of many other inventions throughout the world. Many men invented items that transmitted sound waves through electricity. The story behind Graham is very interesting. He was a professor that trained instructors to teach speech and hearing impaired people.

The original concept was to make a device that could send messages at the same time. While he was making it the idea of making a item that could send speech through electricity crossed his mind. Finally after a year of experimenting he finally spoke the first words. This was done on March 10, 1876. The effect of this was huge, because it started as a huge phone and went through time developing into phones that we have today which are hand-held mini computers. It is the most popular use of communication today. It has effected the US by making things closer together because people can connect easier.

(2) Invention of the Lightbulb - Technology - 1879 Joseph Wilson Swan and Thomas Edison both independently developed the first incandescent lamp in 1879. This lamp lasted for 13. 5 hours. Their design was based on a carbon fiber filament from cotton. In 1880, Edison developed a bamboo filament that lasted up to 1200 hrs. Many scientists worked on testing filaments made of different materials to increase the life of the bulb and be able to withstand higher temperatures for increased brightness. In 1906-1910, the tungsten filament incandescent lightbulb was invented, using the ductile tungsten filament.

This is the lightbulb we use today. The effect of the lightbulb on technology was vast. The lightbulb allowed businesses to work at night, classes could be held at later times, and all work could occur for longer periods of time. This advanced technology in all areas. (2) Radio Waves - Technology - 1894 Radio waves are electromagnetic waves the can transmit music, speech, pictures, and other data through the air. From 1831 to 1879, James clerk Maxwell developed the electromagnetic theory, proving that magnetism and electricity were related. In the 1880’s Heinrich Hertz, discovered extremely long wavelength radio waves.

Then in 1895, Guglielmo Marconi built the first radio transmitter and receiver. In 1901, he sent the first message across the Atlantic Ocean, using signals similar to Morse code. Over many years, other scientists improved on the first transmitter/receiver, and it became possible to send voice signals by Radio waves. Radio Broadcasting began in 1920 in Pittsburgh, PA at KDKA Station, and continues today. The effect of radio waves increased the world of technology through communication. This invention led to advancements of the telegraph and telephone. (3) Invention of the Camera - Technology - 1900

A camera is a lightproof object with the lens that captures incoming light and directs the light and image towards film. In the late 1800s, George Eastman invented the Kodak camera. This development was an advancement on earlier devices of the early 1800s. Many devices were attempted but with many problems. One successful advancement was in the mid-1800s, the use of paper negatives used to make paper prints. For the first time, portrait studios opened and all classes of people could afford a family portrait. In the 1870s, a wet developing process change to dry process.

The exposures took less time, and shutter releases were now mechanically triggered. The last revolution was George Eastman’s change of the processing system. For $22, you could purchase a camera with enough film for 100 shots. After use, it was sent back to the company which then processed the film. (2) Airplane - Technology - 1903 Wilbur and Orville Wright started working on flight designs in 1899. They were the ones who first achieved motor flight. They wanted to use a gasoline engine, and couldn’t find an appropriate one for the design so they built their own. Propellers were not advanced so they also designed their own type of propeller.

Wilbur flew first but sadly he oversteered it and went into the sand. After repairs, three days later the Wright brothers were successful and made history becoming the first humans to fly a motor plane. The effect this had on technology was that it urged more people to make better airplanes. The first advancement was to carry more than just the pilot. Now they carry and ship things across countries and oceans. Scientists can share products/inventions between countries so they can work simultaneously on technological improvements. The airplane also advanced into a military strength. Airplanes could be equipped with guns and other weapons.

The military also uses planes for transporting of medical supplies and patients. (2) Electric Typewriter - Technology - 1919 Christopher Latham Sholes invented the mechanical typewriter in 1867. It used the foot pedal to return the carriage to the left margins, and wrote in uppercase letters. In 1872, Thomas Edison built a typewriter which was operated electrically, by a series of magnets. It was never marketed because it was large, cumbersome, and expensive. The first practical electric typewriter was invented by James Fields Smathers in 1914, and turned over to the Northeast Electric Company for further development in 1923.

They developed a power unit for all kinds of typewriters, and sold them to the typewriter company. Only four major improvements have been made to the original typewriter to this present day; visible writing, capital shift (allows upper and lower case), proportional spacing, and power operation. The impact of the electric typewriter was the improvement of efficiency for businesses. This technology led to the development of the word processor which allowed typists to make mistakes, correct them, move paragraphs, etc. (3) Invention of the Car - Economy - 1920

In the 1920’s, the Henry Ford automobile became popular with the average family. It changed the lives of Americans and everyone that wanted a better form of transportation. The most appealing part of this automobile was the affordability for the average family. In the next few years, most families had a car or were getting ready to buy one. Ford cars became more and more popular. They were creating a group of cars made for mass production and selling. The Ford company influenced many other people, and in the next few years there were many companies involved in making cars.

The economy improved when the car industry started mass production. The car enhanced the oil and steel industries because of the many people having cars. Hotels revenues also increased because of the long trips people could now make because of the car. (3) The Great Depression - Economy - 1929-1939 The most devastating impact of the Great Depression was the human suffering and the changes in the economic policy. The Great Depression was the most severe economic depression in the 20th-century, beginning on black Tuesday, when the stock market crashed. International trade, personal income, prices, and profits all plummeted.

Industrial production declined by 47%, gross domestic product fell by 30%, and the price index declined by 33%. Businesses and banks closed, causing people to lose their life savings. Farming suffered as crop prices fell. Unemployment reached a high of 27%. People lost their homes, lived on the streets, and had no source of income for food. They attempted to save the little money they had rather than spend or invest. President Hoover felt that it was not the responsibility of the government to provide relief. Relief did not come until after the 1932 election when Franklin D.

Roosevelt was elected President. (2) Employment of Women Outside Home - Economy - 1920 In the United States, in the 1920s, only approximately 30% of black and 15% of white married women held paying jobs. Most Americans believe that if women had husbands with jobs, they should not work outside of the home. Some women in desperate need, took jobs in textile mills. In manufacturing areas, white women were hired as mill floor workers; or as nurses, teachers, and social workers for social and educational programs. Black women were then hired by white families as domestic and child care workers.

Public acceptance for women being employed outside of the home grew and clerical office work and retail work open up for women. Working women became consumers of fashion and popular products, such as cigarettes and make up. They spent money on entertainment such as movies and alcohol. Women enhanced consumerism and therefore the economy, in the early 1920s, the “Roaring 20’s”. This positive impact did not last however, and by the mid to late 1920s, the economy’s weaknesses were leading to the Great Depression. (3) World War I - Economy - 1914-1919 World War I started with the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria.

Soon, European countries declared war on each other and allies formed. The United States fought with Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy. We fought against Germany, Austria/Hungry, and Turkey. The United States’ most significant enemy was Germany. World War 1 had positive and negative impacts on the economy. One of the negative effects of World War I was that the tax rate on income rose from 1. 5 to 18% in 3 to 4 years. The total cost of the war was $32 billion for the US. The predominant positive effect of World War I was that the unemployment declined from 7.

9 to 1. 4%. This was possible because so many people joined the military and government. Others that were not in the military and government were working to support the war throughout these five years, in industry. (2) Oil Boom - Economy - 1880 Throughout the mid to late 1800s, Pennsylvania was the most oil producing state in the country. The oil boom which led to the modern oil industry was started in Texas in the late 1800s. Texas had produced minor amounts of oil, but in 1888, a field known as “Oil Springs”, exploded resulting in 250 to 300 barrels of oil a day.

This attracted other oil companies to investigate the numerous underground reservoirs that were not being utilized. Oil company owners made billions of dollars off of these oil sites. The oil was being used for cars, airplanes, and other industries. The oil boom advanced to all over the United States, especially in Alaska and Pennsylvania. The oil industry would continue to grow until the late 1980’s. When the underground oil deposits decreased, the boom ended, and the United States was forced to rely on foreign imported oil in greater amounts. (2)