1) What theological concerns prompted Martin Luther's challenge of the authority of the Catholic Church? What specific reforms did he advocate? -The church was saying that you needed to be saved and you needed Catholic priest to be directly involved in your path to salvation. Luther put emphasis on an individual’s personal relationship with God through Jesus.
2) What were the circumstances of the English Reformation? -Events of the English Reformation were in part associated with the wider process of feudalism and rise of nationalism, rise of common law and more.
3) By the end of the sixteenth century, which European countries had become Protestant and which had remained Catholic? -PROTESTANT: Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, England CATHOLIC: Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Sicily
4) What are some the reasons suggested for the widespread persecution of suspected witches in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? – Theories and fears of witches intensified in the 16 century. Religious conflicts of Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship.
5) Why was Charles V, despite such vast holdings, unable to establish a durable empire? What forces worked against such an empire in the sixteenth century? – Pressures from France and Ottomans halted expansion of the empire
6) How did European monarchs increase their power in the early modern era? What are some of the common characteristics of the new monarchs? -Extended their rule by expanding their lands and territories. A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, a form of government in which a country or entity is usually ruled or controlled by an individual.
7) What is the fundamental difference between absolute monarchy and a constitutional government? -In a constitutional government, the power of the government is limited by some set of rules or document, which sets out the powers given to the government. Other powers are given to other groups, commonly judges and a legislature. How much power is given to each group and the government varies widely, and is entirely up to the constitution of the country in question. On the other hand, in an absolute monarchy, the monarch is presumed to be God-(or other deity)-ordained, and rules with no limits on their power.
8) What factors encouraged the evolution of a constitutional government in England and the Netherlands? -A bitter civil war, 1642-1649. Both had a prominent merchant class and enjoyed unusual prosperity. Both built commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference.
9) How did Louis XIV maintain control over the nobles of France? What were some of the structures of absolutism during his reign? -He has a large standing army that kept order.
11) What factors led to the dramatic population growth of Europe between 1500 and 1700? -American food crops improved Europeans’ nutrition and diets. Increased resistance to epidemic diseases after the mid-17th century. European population, between 1500-1800, increased from 81-180 million. Rapid growth of major cities. Cities increasingly important as administrative and commercial center.
12) What are the characteristics of capitalism in the early modern age? What financial innovations supported the growth of capitalism in Europe? – Joint-stock companies like EEIC and VOC organized commerce on a new scale. Capitalism actively supported by governments, especially in England and Netherlands. Protected rights of private property, upheld contracts, settled disputed.
13) What are some of the social changes that resulted from the growth of capitalism? What groups would have been most threatened by or resistant to these changes? – Early capitalism altered rural society: improved material standards, increased financial independence of rural worker. Families more independent economically, socially, and emotionally. Love between men and women, parents and children became more important.
14) Three great minds collaborated to shatter the ancient Ptolemaic view of the universe. Note the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Who do you think made the most significant contribution? Who took the greatest risk? -Copernicus made the most significant contribution because he suggested that the sun was in the center and it set everything going. But Galileo took the greatest risk by disagreeing with the church.
15) In what ways can we say that "Isaac Newton symbolized the scientific revolution"? What is his role in the Enlightenment? -He had direct observation and mathematical reasoning.
16) What were the principle concerns of the philosophes of the Enlightenment? What solution did they propose? -Weakened the influence of organized religion. Encouraged secular values based on reason rather than revelation. Subjected society to rational analysis, promoted progress and prosperity.