The struggle for civil rights

The matter of civil rights is more about justice and dignity than survival in accordance to Charles Darwin. Therefore, movements involving civil rights are not a physical compulsion as it hardly threatens any sort of physical existence in general terms. Thus this is one movement that is optional for a human being but when the inner soul and dignity along with self respect is taken into account the basic factors of civil right movements becomes more important than just survival strategies. This is one movement that establishes its place in the intellectual level of the human civilization.

Among the most complicated civil rights related issues are those faced by the Native Americans are federally acknowledged tribes are considered domestic dependent nations, with their civil rights to tribal dominion preserved. Tribal dominion refers to tribes’ right to administer themselves delineate their own association, handle tribal property, and control tribal commerce and domestic relations; it additionally distinguishes the existence of a government-to-government association between such tribes and the central government.

The central government has particular conviction obligations to defend tribal lands and capital, guard tribal rights to self-government, and endow with services essential for tribal survival and development. The struggle to protect tribal sovereignty and accord rights has long been at the front position of the Native American civil rights movement.

Furthermore, Native Americans undergo from many of the same social and fiscal tribulations as other fatalities of long-term prejudice and favoritism including, for instance, disproportionately high rates of scarcity, infant mortality, joblessness, and low high school completion rates. The effort for equivalent employment and didactic prospect is a key to addressing these tribulations. (Knott, 188-9)

Also significant for several Native American civil rights promoters are cultural issues connected to the capability to maintain and communicate conventional religious values, languages and social carry outs without dread of favoritism. For instance, Native Americans have long struggled to defend their religious liberty from recurring acts of governmental repression as well as the refutation of right of entry to religious sites, exclusions on the use or ownership of sacred objects, and limitations on their facility to worship through ritual and traditional ways.

In 1988, for instance, in Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Association, the Supreme Court permitted the construction of a Forest Service road through an antique location considered sacred by several tribes. In a hinder for Native Americans’ religious liberties, the Court ruled that such imposition did not infringe the Indians’ First Amendment rights. (Drake, 153-55)

Other civil rights priorities comprise continuing skirmishes for voting rights, as well as the removal of unpleasant use of mascots by schools and professional sports teams that gives a sign of old-fashioned stereotypes and be responsible for racism in opposition to Native Americans. The “Digital Divide” is as well a major area of anxiety for Native Americans and other minority groups for the reason that many American Indians and Alaskan Natives have hitherto to be associated to basic telephone networks and are consequently unable to access the Internet, they are at jeopardy of falling even further behind in their facility to access employment, educational, and other prospects made accessible by information technology.

American Indians are also a racial community who from time to time face favoritism the same as African Americans do. In truth, earlier than the civil rights laws were endorsed, in some states three separate drinking fountains labeled “whites,” “Colored” and “Indian” were found. There were as well three segments in some movie theaters. All of the civil rights decrees that defend people from favoritism for the reason that of race or color or national origin as well protect American Indians. (Kumar, 334)

Lately the Department of Justice took legal action a school district in Utah for not having a high school in the isolated community of Navajo Mountain. The Navajo and Paiute high school age students who reside in this community all had to go over 90 miles from home and live in dormitories or with relatives and attend boarding schools functioned by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The school district had constructed high schools in the communities where non-Indians lived. The school district argued that because the Indians live on a condition they didn’t possess a right to a public school constructed and operated by the district. American Indians are citizens of the United States and of the States where they live. The court ruled that even if they live on an Indian proviso, American Indians have a right to avail all of the same services that state and county governments present to all other citizens of the state.

The resolution of this lawsuit needed the school district to construct a new high school in this community. An impermanent high school program started on in September 1997. This court case was the first time the Civil Rights Division had ever imposed the education decrees on behalf of American Indians. This court case was initially filed by Indian students and their parents. Both the Navajo Nation and the United States united in the court case to sustain the students and their parents.

The Native American Rights Fund (NARF) is a non-profit association that endows with authorized representation and support to Native American Indian tribes, associations and individuals countrywide. NARF focuses on pertaining accessible decrees and treaties to assure that national and state governments live up to their compulsions.

The objectives include Protecting and ascertaining tribal sovereignty, achieve official tribal approval for numerous tribes, Helping tribes carry on their early traditions, by shielding their rights to hunt, fish and use the water on their lands, Helping to support Native American religious dignities, assure the return of remains and burial goods from museums and historical societies for proper re-burial and defending voting rights of Native Americans. (Cunningham, 24-5) This was how the natives tried to establish their position in the society and thus it was a movement for their self esteem and dignity. The same is true for the African American community.

In the years of the 19th century, Democratic-controlled nations, mostly in the South, approved racially biased decrees. In the South, nevertheless also in another places in the United States, racial aggression aimed at African Americans mushroomed. This era is at times referred to as the nadir of American race relations. Designated, allotted, or hired government establishments began to need or authorize favoritism, in the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, etc.

Required or allowed acts of favoritism in opposition to African Americans fell chiefly into four categories such as racial isolation supported by the United States Supreme Court conclusion in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, which was officially authorized by southern states and by several local governments outside the south, voter repression or disfranchisement in the southern states, refutation of economic prospect or possessions nationwide, and private acts of aggression and mass racial hostility intended at African Americans, which were repeatedly encouraged and hardly ever caught up by government authorities. (Dos, 47-48)

The African-American Civil Rights Movement from1955 to1968 refers to the reorganization movements in the United States intended at put an end to racial favoritism of African Americans. By 1966, the surfacing of the Black Power Movement, which lasted approximately from 1966 to 1975, distended and increasingly eclipsed the aspires of the Civil Rights Movement to comprise racial poise, monetary and political self-sufficiency, and liberty from white influence. Several intellectuals refer to the movement as the Second rebuilding, a name that alludes to the renovation after the Civil War.

The key events of The African-American Civil Rights Movement are Jackie Robinson’s Major League Baseball presentation in1947. On May 17 in 1954 the United States Supreme Court presented its verdict concerning the case called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, in which the plaintiffs charged that the education of black children in separate public schools from their white counterparts was illegal. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott from1955 to1956, integrating of Little Rock in1957, Sit-ins and Freedom Rides in 1961, The March on Washington in 1963, Organizing in Mississippi, The Birmingham campaign, from 1963 to 1964,

Mississippi Freedom Summer in 1964, The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in 1964, Selma and the Voting Rights Act in 1965, Memphis and the Poor People’s March in 1968, etc. (Border, 375) These again indicate the human mind’s longing for dignity and self respect. If we take the accounts of the civil rights movements by the Chicanos the same would be revealed again.

The Chicano Civil Rights Movement is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that required political empowerment and social insertion for Mexican Americans. The Chicano Movement included all political, social, and cultural movements by Mexican Americans. Generally, the Chicano Movement concentrated on unenthusiastic stereotyping of Mexicans in gathering media and the American realization through the construction of works of literary and visual art that authenticate the Mexican-American civilization and culture.

Figures such as Tiburcio Vasquez and Joaquin Murietta came forward as folk Heros to Mexican Americans for their negation to surrender to Anglo-American power. The repatriations frequently corresponded with union action, and banishment soon became a means to break and deteriorating unions. An additional wave of repatriations came up after the World War II, however by this time, Mexicans had established unfathomable roots and well-built family and community network inside the United States, consequential in the repatriation of several United States citizens. (Bell, 271-3)

The incorporating ethos began to transform subsequent to World War II. It begin with the institution of advanced learning that they began to expose their own history, a narration that was on no account taught and time and again intentionally concealed in American public schools. This knowledge permitted for a fundamental evaluation of the history and standings of Mexicans in the United States.

That adaptation of the precedent did not, conversely, take into explanation the history of those Mexicans who had migrated to the United States. It was merely a decade later when protesters, for instance Bert Corona in California, cuddle the rights of undocumented workforce and facilitated in broadening the center of attention to take account of their rights.

In the exhilarating days near the end of the decade 1960s, when the student movement was vigorous all over globe, the Chicano movement resulted in more or less unprompted proceedings, for instance the mass go off in a huff by high school students in Denver and East Los Angeles in 1968 and the Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles in 1970. (Manning, 279) In this case too we find that civil rights movements are acting like a tool of self respect and dignity and if the populations of the Asian Americans are taken into consideration then we would see that the fundamental truth about civil right movement would be revealed.

Settlement restrictions and citizenship confines imposed on the Chinese and Japanese settlers from late nineteenth century to early twentieth century. Restrictions set on Asian American settlers were motivated by political, economic and social forces. At the same time as the United States government endeavored to control who cross the threshold to the country by their purpose and extent the Chinese and Japanese immigrants had to resist to uphold their traditions, culture and distinctiveness.

Certainly the overseas Chinese and Japanese living in lands outside China where they are a minority have experienced from hostility and favoritism. The Asian Americans are repeatedly subject to racist favoritism and bitterness, where the poor are reviled and the rich hated. Many of the Asian Americans who worked on the North American railways in the 19th century had gone through from racial favoritism in Canada and the United States of America. Even though most prejudiced decrees have been revoked or not imposed today, both countries had at one time set up decrees that disqualified Chinese from entering the country, for the case in point the Chinese Exclusion Act in the United States or the Canadian Chinese Immigration Act of 1923. (Dollard, 116-7)

In actual fact, even though a lot of Asian Americans are affluent, some national groups undergo from high rates of paucity, joblessness and lack of education. A 1995 United Way revise found that Cambodians living in Los Angeles had inferior median returns and college graduation rates and comparatively higher levels of poverty and joblessness than the city’s African Americans. And while other racial groups are supposed to become Americanized over time, Asian Americans are regarded as perpetually foreign.

It conclusion it can be mentioned that history helps out us to identify ourselves, recognize who we are and be acquainted with the origin where we come from. We over and over again shrink back from hearing about our chronological times of yore for the reason that so much of it is excruciating. Since the beginning of time till today several people all over the globe are incessantly struggling for securing their civil rights. (Goddard, 433-5) In this context all the four ethnic groups acted in a similar manner to achieve their sense of dignity and establish their self respect in the greater perspective of the nation.


Bell, L; Man and Human Rights (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2006) pp 271-3

Border, S; Political Strategies: Games People Play (Remote Publishing Trust; 2004) pp 375

Cunningham, S A; Introduction to North American Civil Rights Movements (DLTT Publications Ltd. 2005) pp 24-5

Drake, S; Evaluation of Civil Rights Movements (ABP Ltd. 2006) pp 153-55

Dos, M; Advent of Motivation (Alliance Publications; 2005) pp 47-48

Dollard, John; Zenith and Zero Point (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2004) pp 116-7

Goddard, J; Rights: Making the Most Out of It (Howard & Price. 2006) pp 433-5

Knott, P; Development of Civil Rights (Dasgupta & Chatterjee 2005) pp 188-9

Kumar, H; Win Some, Lose None (HBT & Brooks Ltd. 2005) pp 334

Manning, C S; Principals and Practices of Civil Rights (National Book Trust. 2004) pp 279