Adjudication is a very important ingredient in the policy process, both as carried out by courts and administrative agencies. It is often through the settlement of individual cases and controversies that policy is clarified and given concrete meaning for individuals. Outside the areas of constitutional law-making by judges and the exercise of independent constitutional powers of presidency, the policy process goes through three fairly identifiable formal stages: • the passage of a statute; • the promulgation of regulation based upon that statute by administrative agencies;
• the adjudication of disputes that arise under statutory and administrative law by administrative agencies, initially, and under certain circumstances by the courts where they exercise their authority to review the decisions of the agencies (Woll, 1982). Good leadership depends on systems thinking. This type of thinking focuses on ways to implement, in the short and long term, systems necessary for meeting identified needs. To ensure that system thinking is effective, public health agency leaders must support the system perspective and make certain staff understand what is involved in a systems approach to change.
Communication must be frequent enough to allow the staff to help manage the implementation of strategic policies. The leader is responsible for guiding the implementation activities and presenting to the community the steps being taken by the agency in response to local public health issues. Team building is a critical part of leading a public health agency. The leader creates team inside the agency and coalitions outside to address the programmatic needs of the agency. Once the members are appointed, the teams need to clarify the values that will guide their activities.
Community coalitions and partnerships have basic similarities to teams, and their development resembles team development. Public health leaders must: • create a learning organization • coordinate knowledge management activities • think systematically and act strategically • promote and support the change process • support the value of the agency and the community • understand the relationship between system inputs, programme interventions, and outputs • monitor and evaluate the effect of change • practice systems thinking at the five levels of leadership (Rowitz, 2009).
In health reform debate in the early 1990s, the potential for the loss of choice of medical provider (and loss of power over other aspects of medical care) was a critical factor in the defeat of Clinton plan. (To particularly fill out the list of American cultural values, Americans are preoccupied with the biggest and newest consumer products pursue dreams even when the chance of success is slight, are impatient, and tend to improvise in the making of changes. All these need to be taken into account in designing public health policies).
Public health leaders, as protectors of the values of the agency and community, must emphasize the importance of maintaining high ethical standards inside the agency and in the community. One necessary task is to do an ethic check. Are the procedures used in the agency and community legal? And even if legal, are they consistent with the values of the agency and the community? Leaders also need to examine the relationship between the science of public health, the facts that guide public health practice, and the explicit knowledge that comes from our formal learning.
Leaders need to be oriented towards the future and help create the vision that guides the activities of the agency. They must also inspire their colleagues to share the vision and use it to guide their activities. An agency’s mission and the vision must reflect each other. A vision is a picture of what, according to its leaders, the agency’s future should be like. The agency’s mission is the role it sees itself playing in the community. If the vision and mission truly reflect each other, then the agency, is fulfilling its mission, will help realize its vision (i. e. help bring out the kind of the future it desires).
Leaders and managers have the critical role of translating tactic knowledge into explicit knowledge so that there is meaning in these events for internal and external stakeholders. This translation help the organization address similar problems in the future. Public health leaders, besides identifying values, must consider how these values will affect the implementation of programs. They should be aware that the process of values clarification can simplify the solution of many local public health issues (Rowitz, 2009). The justice systems on public health policy