Consciousness ▪ Collective term for an individual’s perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and memories that are active at a given moment. Preconsciousness ▪ This is between consciousness and unconsciousness. It refers to memories that are not at the surface or at the top of the mind of a person but can be retrieved at any given time or needed. Unconsciousness
▪ It serves as a store room of these psychological feelings that are no longer accessible. Waking state ▪ A consciousness with a mixture of sensation from the outside world, sensations from the body, memories from the past, thoughts, feelings, perception, and expectations about the future that occur when we are awake and reasonably alert. Altered states of consciousness
▪ A radical deviation from the overall pattern of functioning of the mind during the ordinary waking state of consciousness such that new, overall pattern is superimposed on one’s experience.
Examples of altered states of consciousness
Sleep ▪ Growth hormones reach their peak concentrations in the blood during sleep. It was linked with fatigue where substances accumulate in the bloodstream to cause sleep. Snoring ▪ Occurs when the air passage is blocked by the tongue. Sleeptalking and Sleepwalking ▪ Although these are still open topics, researchers have concluded that these are partially hereditary. They take place at stages 3 and 4 or NREM (non rapid eye movement) and is recorded to be common among children. These sleep walker after sleeping for about 2 hours arises from bed, walks about the house and performs a familiar act like going to the room of the yaya. Narcolepsy
▪ This is the uncontrollable tendency to fall asleep. This can happen even at daytime. Example: a singer falls asleep while performing. Apnea ▪ This is a breathing difficulty and cessation of breathing while asleep. Insomnia ▪ Is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling and/ or staying asleep.
Stages of sleep ▪ A devise that measures the brainwaves of a sleeping person is called electroencephalograph (EEG). The recording system is called electroencephalogram. When the person is awake and alert, beta waves appear during the deepest sleep stage. Stages 1-4 are called NREM (non rapid eye movement).
Stage 1 ▪ Slowing of the heart rate and there is muscle relaxation. If the person is awakened, he may not be aware of having slept at all. Stage 2 ▪ Appearance of sleep spindles. The person cannot be easily awakened at this stage. Stage 3 ▪ Delta waves already appear. Blood pressure, respiration rate and body temperature drops. Stage 4 ▪ More delta waves appear. This is the deepest sleep stage.
Dreams ▪ Dream as an altered states of consciousness in which remembered images and fantasies are temporarily confused with external reality. Prophetic dreams ▪ It can be a pathway to creativity and discovery to creativity and discovery.
Hypnosis ▪ This came from the Greek god of sleep, Hypnos which means sleep.
Theories of hypnosis
▪ James Braid and Ivav Pavlov: hypnosis is a form of sleep. ▪ Jean Charcot: hypnosis is a sign of hysteria; he classified it as a neurological disturbance. ▪ Psychoanalytic View: hypnosis is a condition characterized by the fact that the subject is in a regressed state and engages in a transference relationship. ▪ Sarbin: role-enactment in which the subject and the hypnotist can be seen as enacting roles appropriate to their conception of a developing script.
▪ Hilgard: hypnosis is a kind of split in consciousness – a second part of hypnotized subject’s awareness monitors everything that happens during hypnosis. ▪ Bulatao: hypnosis is a state of consciousness which accesses (activates) subconscious memories, abilities, and other states of consciousness, which then express themselves spontaneously in conscious experience and action.
Meditation ▪ This is largely practiced for relaxation. It lowers the rate of metabolism, blood pressure, and muscle tension.
Psychoactive drugs ▪ By taking chemical substances, one’s behavior is altered. Mood, perception, and state of consciousness are likewise altered because of biochemical actions hitting the nervous system.
-- Psychoactive drugs are generally classified as: -> depressants -> stimulants -> hallucinogens -> cannabis -> opiates